Table 2 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pancreatic cancer by quintiles of energy-adjusted intakes (mg per 1000 kcal) of total flavonoids and subtypes among 537 104 participants in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study

From: Flavonoid intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P -trend
Total flavonoids (mg per day)a 34.3 65.2 101.7 171.4 388.0  
Cases (n) 483 450 475 476 495  
 Model 1b 1.00 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 0.94 (0.83–1.07) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.477
 Model 2c 1.00 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 1.06 (0.93–1.20) 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 0.113
Flavan-3-ols (mg per day)a 8.6 22.9 51.1 118.7 331.2  
Cases (n) 496 455 456 484 488  
 Model 1 1.00 0.92 (0.81–1.04) 0.93 (0.82–1.05) 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.477
 Model 2 1.00 0.97 (0.85–1.10) 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 1.04 (0.92–1.18) 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 0.335
Flavanones (mg per day)a 2.6 9.0 18.8 30.6 55.4  
Cases (n) 484 486 473 467 469  
 Model 1 1.00 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 0.017
 Model 2 1.00 1.07 (0.94–1.21) 1.02 (0.90–1.17) 1.01 (0.89–1.16) 1.06 (0.92–1.21) 0.663
Flavonols (mg per day)a 4.5 7.2 9.6 12.9 21.2  
Cases (n) 483 469 482 466 479  
 Model 1 1.00 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 0.868
 Model 2 1.00 1.02 (0.89–1.16) 1.08 (0.93–1.21) 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 1.09 (0.95–1.24) 0.264
Anthocyanidins (mg per day)a 2.1 4.3 6.4 9.2 15.2  
Cases (n) 498 476 459 458 488  
 Model 1 1.00 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 0.85 (0.75–0.96) 0.83 (0.73–0.95) 0.88 (0.78– 1.00) 0.661
 Model 2 1.00 0.99 (0.88–1.14) 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 1.01 (0.88–1.15) 1.10 (0.96–1.27) 0.022
Flavones (mg per day)a 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.6  
Cases (n) 473 445 517 483 461  
 Model 1 1.00 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 0.224
 Model 2 1.00 1.02 (0.86–1.12) 1.17 (1.03–1.34) 1.11 (0.97–1.27) 1.09 (0.95–1.25) 0.172
Isoflavones (mg per day)a 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5  
Cases (n) 497 478 483 470 451  
 Model 1 1.00 0.94 (0.83–1.07) 0.95 (0.83–1.07) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 0.038
 Model 2 1.00 0.97 (0.85–1.10) 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.96 (0.85–1.10) 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 0.435
  1. aReported intakes (mg per day) are flavonoid subtype-specific median values.
  2. bModel 1 is adjusted for energy and sex, with age as the underlying time metric.
  3. cModel 2 is adjusted for sex, smoking (never, quit >10 years before, quit 5–9 years before, quit 1–4 years before, quit <1 year prior or current smoker 20 cigarettes per day, quit <1 year prior, or current smoker >20 cigarettes per day), diabetes (yes/no), body mass index (18.5–<25, 25–<30, 30–50 kg m−2, and missing), alcohol, calories, saturated fat and red meat intake (continuous variables), with age as the underlying time metric.