Table 2 Frequency of selected features in cases and controls in the whole study population

From: The risk of pancreatic cancer in symptomatic patients in primary care: a large case–control study using electronic records

Clinical feature Cases, n (%), n =3635 Controls, n (%), n =16 459 LR (95% CI) PPV in percent a (95% CI)
Symptoms     
 Abdominal pain 1540 (42.4) 1004 (6.1) 7.0 (6.5–7.5) 0.2 (0.19–0.22)
 Nausea/ vomiting 590 (16.2) 408 (2.5) 6.6 (5.8–7.4) 0.19 (0.17–0.21)
 Back pain 452 (12.4) 1007 (6.1) 2.0 (1.8–2.3) 0.06 (0.05–0.07)
 Constipation 427 (11.8) 555 (3.4) 3.5 (3.1–3.9) 0.1 (0.09–0.11)
 Diarrhoea 385 (10.6) 539 (3.3) 3.2 (2.9–3.7) 0.09 (0.08–0.11)
 Weight loss 353 (9.7) 105 (0.6) 15.2 (12.3–18.9) 0.44 (0.36–0.55)
 Malaise 187 (5.1) 197 (1.2) 4.3 (3.5–5.2) 0.12 (0.1–0.15)
Signs     
 Jaundice 1110 (30.5) 10 (0.1) 502.6 (269.9–935.7) 12.9 (7.89–27.1)
Diseases     
 New-onset diabetes 804 (22.1) 1201 (7.3) 3.0 (2.8–3.3) 0.09 (0.08–0.10)
Investigations     
 Abnormal liver function 1834 (50.5) 1506 (9.2) 5.5 (5.2–5.8) 0.16 (0.15–0.17)
 Low haemoglobin 728 (20.0) 978 (5.9) 3.4 (3.1–3.7) 0.1 (0.09–0.11)
 Raised inflammatory markers 892 (24.5) 734 (4.5) 5.5 (5.0–6.0) 0.16 (0.15–0.17)
  1. Abbreviations: CI=confidence interval; LR=likelihood ratio; PPV=positive predictive value.
  2. PPV in the consulting population.