Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Clinical Oncology/Epidemiology

Continuous infusion or subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: increased efficacy and reduced toxicity when given subcutaneously

Abstract

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a haematopoietic growth factor with a wide variety of applications in the clinic. In early phase I studies the continuous intravenous (c.i.) route of administration was often used. Later it was shown that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration was also effective. The optimal route of administration remains, however, poorly defined, and no studies have made a direct comparison between these two routes of administration. We treated patients with advanced breast cancer with moderately high-dose doxorubicin and cylophosphamide and GM-CSF. The first 14 patients received GM-CSF by c.i, while subsequently 47 patients received it s.c. Comparison between the two groups showed that c.i. GM-CSF was more toxic in several respects. There was a higher need for erythrocyte and platelet transfusions and a significant deterioration in the performance status. This study indicates that subcutaneous GM-CSF is the preferred route of administration. Randomised trials are, however, needed to confirm these conclusions.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Honkoop, A., Hoekman, K., Wagstaff, J. et al. Continuous infusion or subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: increased efficacy and reduced toxicity when given subcutaneously. Br J Cancer 74, 1132–1136 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1996.502

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1996.502

Search

Quick links