A B16 mouse melanoma cell line resistant to doxorubicin was obtained by continuous in vitro exposure to the drug. The ID50 for this line was 200 times higher than that for the parental cell line. The resistant cell line had some biological characteristics similar to those of the sensitive parental cell line, like saturation density and protein content. Differences were found in doubling time which was longer, cloning efficiency which was lower and DNA content which was higher in the resistant as compared to the parental line. Intracellular distribution of doxorubicin was also different having a nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio higher in sensitive than in resistant cells. Melanin content was an unstable feature in the sensitive cell line, whereas melanin was always present in resistant cells. Resistance to doxorubicin was maintained during 50 in vitro passages in the absence of the drug. Cross-resistance was found with vincristine and other anthracyclines, like daunorubicin and 4'-epi-doxorubicin but not with cis-platinum, and a new doxorubicin derivative, 4'-deoxy-4'-iodio-doxorubicin. The B16 line showed a lower resistance index to 4'-deoxy-doxorubicin and 4-demethoxy-daunorubicin (30 and 3 respectively), as compared to doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-resistance was partially circumvented by pretreatment of resistant cells with verapamil, a calcium chelating agent, and by trifluoperazine, a calmodulin-antagonist.
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Supino, R., Prosperi, E., Formelli, F. et al. Characterization of a doxorubicin-resistant murine melanoma line: Studies on cross-resistance and its circumvention. Br J Cancer 54, 33–42 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1986.149
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