LLDT-8 treatment ameliorated anti-GBM nephritis in NZW mice. (A) NZW mice were sensitized subcutaneously with rabbit IgG emulsified in CFA at a final concentration of 2 mg/mL on d 0. The mice were subsequently challenged intraperitoneally with 500 μL of anti-GBM serum on d 4 and sacrificed on d 14. LLDT-8, PNS and HPMC were administered from d 0 to d 14. (B) Left, Proteinuria levels were measured at various time points in Normal, Vehicle, PNS and LLDT-8 mice (n=8). Right, Urine albumin levels were normalized to urinary creatinine levels to adjust for urinary output. (C) The serum levels of CRE and ALB were detected at the end of the study. (D) Representative images of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained kidney tissue sections are shown. H&E stain, ×200 (small) and ×400 (large). Black scale bars: 10 μm (small) and 50 μm (large). (E) Quantitative analysis of H&E scores in glomeruli and the interstitium. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs vehicle group.