Table 1: Examples of engineering exosomes for cargo delivery.

From: Engineering exosomes as refined biological nanoplatforms for drug delivery

  AdvantagesDisadvantagesModel drugs
I) Passive loadinga) Incubation of exosomes and free drugsSimple
Do not compromise membrane integrity
Low drug loading efficiencyDoxorubicin60
Paclitaxel48
Catalase44
Paclitaxel58
 b) Incubation of the donor cells with free drugsSimple
Do not compromise membrane integrity
Low drug loading efficiency
Drugs may cause cytotoxicity to the donor cells
 
II) Active loadinga) SonicationHigh drug loading efficiencyCompromise membrane integrityCatalase44
 b) ExtrusionHigh drug loading efficiencyCompromise membrane integrityPorphyrin50
 c) Freeze/thawMedium drug loading efficiency
Liposome-exosome fusion
AggregationsPorphyrin
 d) ElectroporationLoading with large molecules such as siRNA, miRNAAggregationslet-7a miRNA66
MAPK1 siRNA52
 e) Incubation with saponinEnhanced drug loadingToxicityCatalase44
Porphyrin50
 f) Click chemistryQuick and efficient
Better control over the conjugation site
 Azide-fluor 545 for in vitro tracking56
 g) Antibody bindingSpecific and easy to operate CD9 antibody with Alexa-64757