Review | Published:

Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal components of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica volume 29, pages 11091118 (2008) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer is mainly used to maintain the homeostasis of the body, and the pharmacological efficacy of Korean ginseng identified by modern science includes improved brain function, pain-relieving effects, preventive effects against tumors as well as anti-tumor activity, enhanced immune system function, anti-diabetic effects, enhanced liver function, adjusted blood pressure, anti-fatigue and anti-stress effects, improved climacteric disorder and sexual functions, as well as anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Further clinical studies of these pharmacological efficacies will continue to be carried out. Korean ginseng is found to have such main properties as ginsenoside, ployacety-lene, acid polysaccharide, anti-oxidative aromatic compound, and insulin-like acid peptides. The number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ginsenosides) is substantially more than that of ginsenoside types contained in American ginseng (19 ginsenosides). Furthermore, Korean ginseng has been identified to contain more main non-saponin compounds, phenol compounds, acid polysaccharides and polyethylene compounds than American ginseng and Sanchi ginseng.

References

  1. 1.

    . Panax ginseng. Leningrad: Gosudaarst Isdat et Med Lit; 1957.

  2. 2.

    , . New substances of plantorigin which increase non-specific resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol 1969: 9: 419–30.

  3. 3.

    , , , . The effect of ginseng on lifespan and stress response in mice. Gerontology 1979; 25: 125.

  4. 4.

    . Preventive geriatrics: An overview from traditional Chinese medicine. Am J Chin Med 1982; 10: 32.

  5. 5.

    , , , , , . Effect of ginseng triol saponin fractions on the spatial memory functions studied with 12-arm radial maze. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1994; 18: 32–8.

  6. 6.

    , . Effects of ginseng and its saponins on experimental amnesis in mice and on cell cultures of neurons. Proceedings of the 5th International Ginseng Symposium; 1988. Seoul, Korea: Korean Society of Ginseng.

  7. 7.

    , , , . Preliminary study on antiamnes-tic mechanism of ginsenoside Rgl and Rbl. Clin Med J 1990; 103: 932–8.

  8. 8.

    , , , , , , et al. Ginsenoside- Rg2 protects memory impairment via anti-apoptosis in a rat model with vascular dementia. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 115: 441–8.

  9. 9.

    , , , , . Cognitive improvement by ginseng in Alzheimer' disease. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006. Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  10. 10.

    , . Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and mood. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003; 75: 687–700.

  11. 11.

    , , . Effects of 8 weeks administration of Korean Panax ginseng extract on the mood and cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  12. 12.

    , , , , , , et al. An-ticiceptive effects of ginsenosides injected intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally in various pain models. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  13. 13.

    , , , , , , et al. Ginseng intake and gastric cancer risk in the Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16: 629–30.

  14. 14.

    . Experimental and epidemiologic evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean red ginseng and identification of active compounds. Mutat Res 2003; 523–524: 63–74.

  15. 15.

    , . A case-control study of ginseng intake and cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 19: 871–6.

  16. 16.

    , . Preventive effect of ginseng intake against various human cancers: A case-control study on 1987 pairs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomakers Prev 1995; 4: 401–8.

  17. 17.

    , , , , . The effect of Korean ginseng on the immunotoxicity of mitomycin C. Yakhak Hoeji 1987; 31: 355–60.

  18. 18.

    , , . Inhibition by ginseng of colon carcinogenesis in rats. J Korean Med Sci 2001; 16: S75–80.

  19. 19.

    , , , . A study on the cytotoxic activity of Korean red ginseng against cancer cells. Proceedings of the 6th International Ginseng Symposium; 1993. Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute, Korea.

  20. 20.

    , , , , . Inhibition of human ovarian cancer cell proliferation in vitro by ginsenoside-Rh2 and adjuvant effects to cisplatin in vivo. Anticancer Drugs (England) 1991; 2: 63–7.

  21. 21.

    , , . Anti-proliferative effect of ginseng sa-ponins on human prostate cancer cell line. Life Sci 2000; 67: 1297–306.

  22. 22.

    , , , , , . Cytotoxic activity of polyacetylene compounds in Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Chem Pharm Bull 1990; 38: 3480–2.

  23. 23.

    , , , , . Induction of phenotypic reverse transformation by ginsenosides in cultured Morris hepatimacells. Eur J Cancer 1979; 15: 885–92.

  24. 24.

    , . Ginsenosides 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and Rh2 reduce cell proliferation and increase sub-Gl cells in two cultured intestinal cell lines, int-407 and caco-2. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 82: 183–90.

  25. 25.

    , , , , . Ginsenoside Rh2 enhances antitumor activity and decreases the genotoxic effect of cytophosph-amide. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 98: 411–15.

  26. 26.

    , , , , . Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with cyclophosphamide on growth and angio-genesis of ovarian cancer. Clin Med J 2007; 120: 584–8.

  27. 27.

    , , , , Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer and identification of active compounds. J Korean Med Sci 2001; 16: S6–18.

  28. 28.

    , , , , , , et al. Evaluation of anticancer action of ginsenoside Rp 1 and its molecular mechanism. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  29. 29.

    , , , , , , et al. Partial chemical structure and immunomodulating antitumor activities of RGAP (red ginseng acidic polysaccharide) from Korean red ginseng. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  30. 30.

    , , , , . Prospective study for Korean red ginseng extract as an immune modulator following a curative surgery in patients with advanced colon cancer. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  31. 31.

    , , . Inhibitory effect of tumor invasion and metastasis by saponins, 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, or red ginseng. Proceedings of the Korea-Japan Ginseng Symposium; 1995, Seoul, Korea, Korea Ginseng & T Research Institute.

  32. 32.

    , , , , , , et al. Inhibitory effect of tumor metastasis in mice by saponin, ginsenoside-Rb2, 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, of red ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull 1995; 18: 1197–202.

  33. 33.

    , . Influence of the 70% methanolic extract from red ginseng on the lysosome of tumor cells and on the cytocidal effect of mitomycin C. Planta Med 1992; 58: 424–8.

  34. 34.

    , , , . Clinical study for effects of ginseng on CDDP-treated cancer patients. Choesin Uihak 1992; 35: 40–6.

  35. 35.

    , , , , , , et al. Effects of ginseng saponin on modulation of multidrug resistance. Arch Pharm Res 1996; 193: 213–8.

  36. 36.

    , , , , . Mediation of beta-endorphin by ginsenoside Rh2 to lower plasma glucose in streptozo-tocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2006; 72: 9–13.

  37. 37.

    , , , , , , et al. Korean ginseng rootlet decreases acute postprandial glycemia: Results from sequential preparation- and dose-finding studies. J Am Coll Nutr 2006; 25: 100–7.

  38. 38.

    , , , , , , et al. A role for ginseng in the control of postprandial glycemia and type 2 diabetes. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ginseng; 2002, Seoul, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  39. 39.

    , , , Studies on the mechanism of hypoglycemic activity of ginsenoside-Rb2 streptozoto-cin-diabetic rats. Chem Pharm Bull 1985; 33: 869–72.

  40. 40.

    , , Effect of administration of ginsenoside-Rb2 in diabetic rats: In terms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolites. Chem Pharm Bull 1987; 35: 4872–7.

  41. 41.

    , . Facilitation of protein biosynthesis by gin-senoside-Rb2 administration in diabetic rats. J Nat Prod 1990; 53: 1514–18.

  42. 42.

    , , , . Preparation of insulin-like peptides from Panax ginseng. Proceedings of Wakan-Yaku Ginseng Symposium. Gobe, Japan Proc Symp Wakan-Yaku 1979; 12: 15–19.

  43. 43.

    , , , . Increase of insulin secretion by ginsenoside Rh2 to lower plasma glucose in Wistar rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 33: 27–32.

  44. 44.

    , . Biological activities of non-saponincompounds isolated from Korean red ginseng. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Korean Ginseng, 1990; Seoul, Korea. Korea Ginseng & T Research Institute.

  45. 45.

    , , , , . Studies on insulin-like substances of Korean red ginseng. Planta Med 1990; 56: 27–30.

  46. 46.

    , , . Protective effect of ginseng on bromoben-zene-induced hepatoxicity in mice. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1988; 12: 114–20.

  47. 47.

    , , , , , . The role of Panax ginseng in detoxification of xenobiotics. Proceedings of the 4th International Ginseng Symposium; 1984. Seoul, Korea, Korea Ginseng & T Research Institute. Korea Ginseng Research Institute.

  48. 48.

    , Protective effect of ginseng saponin. Report of Ginseng Research Association: 1988. p 46–48.

  49. 49.

    , . Analysis of hepatoprotection by Panax ginseng following mercuric chloride intoxication in albino rat. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  50. 50.

    , , , . Effects of Panax ginseng on ga-lactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Yakhak Hoeji 1990; 34: 341–7.

  51. 51.

    , , . Anti-hepatitic activity of ginsenoside Ro. Planta Med 1991; 57: 52–5.

  52. 52.

    , , , , , . Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) can lower blood pressure in individuals with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  53. 53.

    , , . Ginsenosides of the protopa-naxatriol group cause endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat arorta. Life Sci 1995; 56: 1577–86.

  54. 54.

    , , . Ginsenosides evoke endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta. Gen Pharmac 1994; 25: 1071–7.

  55. 55.

    , . Effect of red ginseng on mice exposed to various stress. Proceedings of the 4th International Ginseng Symposium; 1984, Seoul, Korea, Korea Ginseng & T research Institute.

  56. 56.

    . Influence of Panax ginseng on the response of stressful stimuli in the experimental animal exposed to various stress. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1979; 3: 168–86.

  57. 57.

    , , , , . The acute effects of massive dose of red ginseng on healthy adults under the condition of cold stress. Proceedings of the Korea-Japan Ginseng Symposium; 1996, Seoul, Korea, Korea Ginseng & T Research Institute.

  58. 58.

    , , . The chemistry, metabolism and biological activities of ginseng. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press; 2006.

  59. 59.

    , , . The chemistry, metabolism and biological activities of ginseng. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press; 2006.

  60. 60.

    , , , , , . Efficacy of Panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenoside Rg3 against oxidative stress of PCBs in rats. Proceedings of the 9th International Ginseng Symposium; 2006, Geumsan, Chungnam, Korea, Korean Society of Ginseng.

  61. 61.

    , . Clinical effectiveness of Korean ginseng on patients with climacteric disturbances. Ginseng Rev 1994; 18: 95–7.

  62. 62.

    , , , , , , et al. Study of the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Asian JAndrol 2007: 9: 241–4.

  63. 63.

    , . Effectiveness for erectile dysfunction after the administration of Korean red ginseng. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1995; 19: 17–21.

  64. 64.

    , , . Evaluation of clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction by international index of erectile function (IIEF). Int J Ginseng Res 2001; 25: 112–7.

  65. 65.

    , , . In vitro and in vivo experimental effect of Korean red ginseng on erection. JUrol 1999; 162: 1508–11.

  66. 66.

    , , , , , , et al. Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panminerva Med 1996; 38: 249–54.

  67. 67.

    . Change of serum β2-microglobulin, p24 antigen and CD4+ T lymphocyte in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection after azidothymidine Treatment. J Korean Soc Microbiol 1993; 28: 409–17.

  68. 68.

    , , , , . The effect of Korean.red ginseng (KRG), zidovudine, and the combination of KRG and ZDV on HIV-infected individuals. J Korean Soc Microbiol 1996; 31: 353–60.

  69. 69.

    . Effects of Korea red ginseng on immunological markers of persons with human immunodeficiency virus. Proceedings of the 6th International Ginseng Symposium. Seoul, Korea, Korea Ginseng & T Research Institute; 1993: 52–6.

  70. 70.

    , , , , , . High frequency of grossly deleted nef genes in HIV-1 infected long-term slow progressors treated with Korean red ginseng. Curr HIV Res 2006; 4: 447–57.

  71. 71.

    , . Protective effects of Korean Panax ginseng against chromium VI toxicity and free radical generation in rats. J Ginseng Res 2004; 28: 11–7.

  72. 72.

    , , . Effects of ginsenoside Rb2 on the an-ti-oxidants in senescence-accelerated mice(SAM-R/l). Proceedings of the 6th International Ginseng Symposium; 1993, Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute, Korea.

  73. 73.

    , , . Chemical and biochemical studies on antioxidant components. Advances in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. Philadelphia: World Scientific Co; 1985.

  74. 74.

    , , . Ginsenosides protect pulmonary vascular endothelium against free radical-induced injury. Biochem Bio-phys Res Commun 1992; 189: 670–6.

  75. 75.

    , , . Free radical scavenging activity of red ginseng aqueous extracts. Toxicology 2002; 172: 149–56.

  76. 76.

    , , . Effects of polyacetylene compounds from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on CCI4 induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver. Korean J Toxicol 1988; 4: 3.

  77. 77.

    , , , , , . Single calcium channel analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral study on the mycocardial effects of ginsenoside Rb2. Chung Guo Yao Tsa Chih 1994; 19: 621–4.

  78. 78.

    , Effect of Korean red ginseng powder on the survival rate of rat. Ginseng Rev 1989: 228–37.

  79. 79.

    . Comparison of characteristics in Korean ginseng and American ginseng. Report of Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, 2002.

  80. 80.

    . Recent studies on the chemical constituents of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C A Meyer). Reviews in Ginseng Research (I), Korean Society of Ginseng; 2007: 32–45.

  81. 81.

    , . Saponin cotent of Korean ginseng. Korean J Pharmacol 1973; 4.

  82. 82.

    . Chemical components of Korean ginseng. Korean Ginseng Symposium; 1974, Seoul, Korea, Korea Monopoly Research Institute.

  83. 83.

    , , . 10-Acetylpanaxytriol, a newcytotoxic polyacetylene from Panax ginseng. YakhakHoeji 1989; 33: 118.

  84. 84.

    , , , . The action of cytotoxic components of Korean ginseng against L1210 cells and their structure-activity relationship. Proceedings of the 5th International Ginseng Symposium; 1988, Seoul, Korea, Korea Ginseng & T Research Institute.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Korean Society of Ginseng, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-862, and Techno-Doctor, KOITA, Seoul, Republic of Korea

    • Kwang-tae Choi

Authors

  1. Search for Kwang-tae Choi in:

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kwang-tae Choi.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7254.2008.00869.x

Further reading