Immunopharmacology and Anti-tumor Pharmacology

(5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide inhibits IFN-γ-related signaling



(5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) displayed anti-arthritis and anti-allogenic transplantation rejection activities in our previous studies. Here, we aim to further clarify the effect of LLDT-8 on the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ.


T cells were activated with anti-CD3 antibody or concanavalin A (ConA). The expression of cell surface molecules was detected with flow cytometry. Cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to test cell division. IFN-γ production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]-thymidine uptake. Mice were immunized with ovalbumin to assess the in vivo immune response. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were applied to determine the mRNA expression. The protein phosphorylation levels were detected by Western immunoblot assay.


LLDT-8 at 100 nmol/L did not change the CD25, CD69, and CD154 expressions in anti-CD3-stimulated T cells. LLDT-8 markedly blocked the cell division of CD4 and CD8 T cells after ConA stimulation. LLDT-8 inhibited T cell-derived IFN-γ production. Moreover, LLDT-8 suppressed the ovalbumin-specific T cell proliferation and IFN-γ generation. In anti-CD3-activated T cells, LLDT-8 abrogated the mRNA expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), T-box transcription factor, IL-12 receptor β2, STAT4, and interferon regulatory factor 1 in the IFN-γ expression pathway. Western blot analysis showed that LLDT-8 blocked the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-activated T cells. In addition, LLDT-8 reduced the transcripts of macrophage inflammatory protein (Mip)-1α, Mip-1β, regulated upon activation normally T-cell expressed and secreted, induc-ible protein-10, IFN-inducible T cell a chemoattractant, and monokine induced by IFN-γ in IFN-γ-stimulated murine macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 cells.


LLDT-8 was a potential inhibitor for IFN-γ-associated signaling.


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Correspondence to Jian-ping Zuo.

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Project supported by a grant from The Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No KSCX2-SW-202).

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  • (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide
  • IFN-γ
  • MAPK
  • chemokine

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