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Cardiovascular Pharmacology

Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α



To investigate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) affected by ginsenoside Rg1 and further explore the molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 using proteomics.


The proliferation of VSMC was measured by MTS assay kit and flow cytometry. Proteomic alterations were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Differential proteins found in proteomics were confirmed by RT-PCR.


The proliferation of VSMC was enhanced significantly after tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment, and ginsenoside Rg1 treatment inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis showed 24 protein spots were changed, including 17 spots that were increased and 7 spots that were decreased. Ginsenoside Rg1 could restore the expression levels of these proteins, at least partly, to basic levels of untreated cells. The expression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase, protein kinase C (PKC)-ζ, N-ras protein were decreased, while cycle related protein p21 was increased by ginsenoside Rg1 in TNF-α treated VSMC.


PKC-ζ and p21 pathway might be the mechanism for inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on proliferation of VSMC.


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Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Zeng-chun Ma or Yue Gao.

Additional information

Project supported by National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (The basic research of traditional Chinese medicine on genomics and proteomics, No 30271617)

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Ma, Zc., Gao, Y., Wang, Yg. et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Acta Pharmacol Sin 27, 1000–1006 (2006).

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  • cell cycle
  • ginsenoside Rg1
  • proteomics
  • tumor necrosis factor-α
  • vascular smooth muscle cells

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