RHEED patterns during InAs/InxGa1−xAs coaxial nanorod heterostructure growth on CVD graphene layers. RHEED patterns of (a) CVD graphene layers transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates and (b) InAs nanorods grown on CVD graphene layers/SiO2/Si. (c) Integrated RHEED intensities of (0004) InAs Bragg spots (red circle in b) and (00) streak from CVD graphene layers (red box in b) as a function of time. The inset shows the evolution of RHEED intensities along the dotted lines (i) slice 1 and (ii) slice 2 in b, plotted as a function of time. (d) RHEED patterns of InAs/InxGa1−xAs coaxial nanorod heterostructures on CVD graphene layers, after growing 20-nm-thick InxGa1−xAs coaxial shell layers. (e) Integrated RHEED intensity of (0004) InAs Bragg spot during the coaxial coating of InxGa1−xAs shell layers.