Table 3 New technologies for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells and modules

From: Advances in crystalline silicon solar cell technology for industrial mass production

Novel technologies to break through efficiency barrier of 25%
Wafer slicing technologies and equipment for ultrathin (50 μm) wafers
Direct slicing technologies and equipment for ultrathin wafers without kerf loss47
Production technologies and equipment for solar cells and modules based on ultrathin wafers
High-quality polycrystalline ingot technologies providing performance comparable to monocrystalline cells
Low-cost contact-forming technologies and materials to replace screen-printed and fired silver paste
Low concentration (around 10×) and high efficiency module technologies to minimize total PV system cost