Blossom DB, McDonald LC. The challenges posed by reemerging Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:222–227.
Kelly CP. Playing host to the difficult Clostridium. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:912–914.
Kyne L, Hamel MB, Polavaram R et al. Health care costs and mortality associated with nosocomial diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:346–353.
Poutanen SM, Simor AE. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults. CMAJ 2004;171:51–58.
Anand A, Glatt AE. Clostridium difficile infection associated with antineoplastic chemotherapy: a review. Clin Infect Dis 1993;17:109–113.
Bignardi GE. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect 1998;40:1–15.
McFarland LV. Update on the changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;5:40–48.
Song X, Bartlett JG, Speck K et al. Rising economic impact of clostridium difficile-associated disease in adult hospitalized patient population. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:823–828.
O'Brien JA, Lahue BJ, Caro JJ et al. The emerging infectious challenge of clostridium difficile-associated disease in Massachusetts hospitals: clinical and economic consequences. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:1219–1227.
Linsky A, Gupta K, Lawler EV et al. Proton pump inhibitors and risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:772–778.
Gurian L, Ward TT, Katon RM. Possible foodborne transmission in a case of pseudomembranous colitis due to Clostridium difficile: influence of gastrointestinal secretions on Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology 1982;83:465–469.
Kaur S, Vaishnavi C, Prasad KK et al. Comparative role of antibiotic and proton pump inhibitor in experimental Clostridium difficile infection in mice. Microbiol Immunol 2007;51:1209–1214.
Leonard J, Marshall JK, Moayyedi P. Systematic review of the risk of enteric infection in patients taking acid suppression. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:2047–2056.
Greenland S. Quantitative methods in the review of epidemiologic literature. Epidemiol Rev 1987;9:1–30.
Zhang J, Yu KF. What's the relative risk? A method of correcting the odds ratio in cohort studies of common outcomes. JAMA 1998;280:1690–1691.
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clin Trials 1986;7:177–188.
Petitti DB. Meta-analysis and endocrinology. Endocrinol Metabol Clin North America 1997;26:31–44.
Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994;50:1088–1101.
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M et al. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Br Med J 1997;315:629–634.
Duval S, Tweedie R. Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics 2000;56:455–463.
Deeks JJ. Issues in the selection of a summary statistic for meta-analysis of clinical trials with binary outcomes. Stat Med 2002;21:1575–1600.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ et al. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Br Med J 2003;327:557–560.
Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000;283:2008–2012.
Dial S, Alrasadi K, Manoukian C et al. Risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea among hospital inpatients prescribed proton pump inhibitors: cohort and case-control studies. CMAJ 2004;171:33–38.
Dalton BR, Lye-Maccannell T, Henderson EA et al. Proton pump inhibitors increase significantly the risk of Clostridium difficile infection in a low-endemicity, non-outbreak hospital setting. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009;29:626–634.
Dubberke ER, Reske KA, Yan Y et al. Clostridium difficile-associated disease in a setting of endemicity: identification of novel risk factors. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:1543–1549.
Pepin J, Alary ME, Valiquette L et al. Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1591–1597.
Yearsley KA, Gilby LJ, Ramadas AV et al. Proton pump inhibitor therapy is a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;24:613–619.
Turco R, Martinelli M, Miele E et al. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for paediatric Clostridium difficile infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;31:754–759.
Kim JW, Lee KL, Jeong JB et al. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for recurrence of Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol 2010;16:3573–3577.
Howell MD, Novack V, Grgurich P et al. Iatrogenic gastric acid suppression and the risk of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:784–790.
Bajaj JS, Ananthakrishnan AN, Hafeezullah M et al. Clostridium difficile is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis: a national and tertiary center perspective. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105:106–113.
Debast SB, van Leengoed LA, Goorhuis A et al. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 toxinotype V found in diarrhoeal pigs identical to isolates from affected humans. Environ Microbiol 2009;11:505–511.
Aseeri M, Schroeder T, Kramer J et al. Gastric acid suppression by proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:2308–2313.
Baxter R, Ray GT, Fireman BH. Case-control study of antibiotic use and subsequent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:44–50.
Cadle RM, Mansouri MD, Logan N et al. Association of proton-pump inhibitors with outcomes in Clostridium difficile colitis. Am J Health Sys Pharm 2007;64:2359–2363.
Jayatilaka S, Shakov R, Eddi R et al. Clostridium difficile infection in an urban medical center: five-year analysis of infection rates among adult admissions and association with the use of proton pump inhibitors. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2007;37:241–247.
Akhtar AJ, Shaheen M. Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in African-American and Hispanic patients: association with the use of proton pump inhibitor therapy. J Natl Med Assoc 2007;99:500–504.
Dial S, Delaney JA, Schneider V et al. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease defined by prescription for oral vancomycin therapy. CMAJ 2006;175:745–748.
Dial S, Delaney JA, Barkun AN et al. Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease. JAMA 2005;294:2989–2995.
Cunningham R, Dale B, Undy B et al. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. J Hosp Infect 2003;54:243–245.
Shah S, Lewis A, Leopold D et al. Gastric acid suppression does not promote clostridial diarrhoea in the elderly. QJM 2000;93:175–181.
Kazakova SV, Ware K, Baughman B et al. A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2518–2524.
Lowe DO, Mamdani MM, Kopp A et al. Proton pump inhibitors and hospitalization for Clostridium difficile-associated disease: a population-based study. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:1272–1276.
Beaulieu M, Williamson D, Pichette G et al. Risk of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among patients receiving proton-pump inhibitors in a Quebec medical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:1305–1307.
Thomson AB, Sauve MD, Kassam N et al. Safety of the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors. World J Gastroenterol 2010;16:2323–2330.
Jump RL, Pultz MJ, Donskey CJ. Vegetative Clostridium difficile survives in room air on moist surfaces and in gastric contents with reduced acidity: a potential mechanism to explain the association between proton pump inhibitors and C. difficile-associated diarrhea? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007;51:2883–2887.
Khatami SS, Mukunda B, Ravakhah K. Coinfection with Giardia lamblia and Clostridium difficile after use of ranitidine. Am J Med Sci 2004;327:91–93.
Wilson KH, Sheagren JN, Freter R. Population dynamics of ingested Clostridium difficile in the gastrointestinal tract of the Syrian hamster. J Infect Dis 1985;151:355–361.
Lewis SJ, Franco S, Young G et al. Altered bowel function and duodenal bacterial overgrowth in patients treated with omeprazole. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996;10:557–561.
Williams C, McColl KE. Review article: proton pump inhibitors and bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;23:3–10.
Theisen J, Nehra D, Citron D et al. Suppression of gastric acid secretion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease results in gastric bacterial overgrowth and deconjugation of bile acids. J Gastrointest Surg 2000;4:50–54.
Paredes-Sabja D, Setlow P, Sarker MR. Germination of spores of Bacillales and Clostridiales species: mechanisms and proteins involved. Trends Microbiol 2011;19:85–94.
Inadomi JM, Fendrick AM. PPI use in the OTC era: who to treat, with what, and for how long? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:208–215.