O'Sullivan, I, Keyse, L, Park, N, et al. Contraception and sexual health, 2004/05. In: Office for National Statistics, London, UK, ed. Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO): London, UK, 2005.
Dawson, D. Trends in the use of oral contraceptives: Data from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey. Fam Plann Perspect 1990;22:169–172.
Ekbom, A, Montgomery, SM. Environmental risk factors (excluding tobacco and microorganisms): Critical analysis of old and new hypotheses. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004;18:497–508.
Loftus, EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology 2004;126:1504–1517.
Calkins, BM. A meta-analysis of the role of smoking in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 1989;34:1841–1854.
Van Limbergen, J, Russell, RK, Nimmo, ER, et al. The genetics of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:2820–2831.
Kaunitz, AM. Oral contraceptive estrogen dose considerations. Contraception 1998;58:15S–21S; quiz 66S.
Thorneycroft, IH. Cycle control with oral contraceptives: A review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:280–287.
Chan, WS, Ray, J, Wai, EK, et al. Risk of stroke in women exposed to low-dose oral contraceptives: A critical evaluation of the evidence. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:741–747.
Inman, WH, Vessey, MP. Investigation of deaths from pulmonary, coronary, and cerebral thrombosis and embolism in women of child-bearing age. BMJ 1968;2:193–199.
Vessey, MP, Doll, R. Investigation of relation between use of oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. BMJ 1968;2:199–205.
Schwartz, SM, Petitti, DB, Siscovick, DS, et al. Stroke and use of low-dose oral contraceptives in young women: A pooled analysis of two US studies. Stroke 1998;29:2277–2284.
Wakefield, AJ, Sawyerr, AM, Hudson, M, et al. Smoking, the oral contraceptive pill, and Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:1147–1150.
Godet, PG, May, GR, Sutherland, LR. Meta-analysis of the role of oral contraceptive agents in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1995;37:668–673.
Calkins, BM, Mendeloff, AI, Garland, C. Inflammatory bowel disease in oral contraceptive users. Gastroenterology 1986;91:523–524.
Katschinski, B, Fingerle, D, Scherbaum, B, et al. Oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking in Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:1596–1600.
Lashner, BA, Kane, SV, Hanauer, SB. Lack of association between oral contraceptive use and Crohn's disease: A community-based matched case-control study. Gastroenterology 1989;97:1442–1447.
Lashner, BA, Kane, SV, Hanauer, SB. Lack of association between oral contraceptive use and ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1990;99:1032–1036.
Lesko, SM, Kaufman, DW, Rosenberg, L, et al. Evidence for an increased risk of Crohn's disease in oral contraceptive users. Gastroenterology 1985;89:1046–1049.
Logan, RF, Kay, CR. Oral contraception, smoking and inflammatory bowel disease—findings in the Royal College of General Practitioners Oral Contraception Study. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18:105–107.
Persson, PG, Leijonmarck, CE, Bernell, O, et al. Risk indicators for inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:268–272.
Sandler, RS, Wurzelmann, JI, Lyles, CM. Oral contraceptive use and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Epidemiology 1992;3:374–378.
Vessey, M, Jewell, D, Smith, A, et al. Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cigarette smoking, and use of oral contraceptives: Findings in a large cohort study of women of childbearing age. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1986;292:1101–1103.
Card, T, Logan, RF, Rodrigues, LC, et al. Antibiotic use and the development of Crohn's disease. Gut 2004;53:246–250.
Carrao, G, Tragnone, A, Caprilli, R, et al. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease attributable to smoking, oral contraception and breast feeding in Italy: A nationwide case control study. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:397–404.
Garcia Rodriguez, LA, Gonzalez-Perez, A, Johansson, S, et al. Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in the general population. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;22:309–315.
Sicilia, B, Lopez Miguel, C, Arribas, F, et al. Environmental risk factors and Crohn's disease: A population-based, case-control study in Spain. Dig Liver Dis 2001;33:762–767.
Boyko, EJ, Theis, MK, Vaughan, TL, et al. Increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease associated with oral contraceptive use. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:268–278.
Stroup, DF, Berlin, JA, Morton, SC, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: A proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000;283:2008–2012.
Clarke, M, Horton, R. Bringing it all together: Lancet-Cochrane collaborate on systematic reviews. Lancet 2001;357:1278.
Athannsiou, T, Al-Ruzzeh, S, Kumar, P, et al. Off-pump myocardial revascularization is associated with less incidence of stroke in elderly patients. Ann Thorac Surg 2004;77:745–753.
Entrican, JH, Sircus, W. Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1986;292:1464.
Lichtarowicz, A, Norman, C, Calcraft, B, et al. A study of the menopause, smoking, and contraception in women with Crohn's disease. Q J Med 1989;72:623–631.
Ramcharan, S, Pellegrin, FA, Ray, RM, Hsu, JP. The Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study. A prospective study of the side effects of oral contraceptives. Volume III, an interim report: A comparison of disease occurrence leading to hospitalization or death in users and nonusers of oral contraceptives. J Reprod Med 1980;25(6 Suppl):345–372.
Rhodes, JM, Cockel, R, Allan, RN, et al. Colonic Crohn's disease and use of oral contraception. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1984;288:595–596.
Sutherland, LR, Ramcharan, S, Bryant, H, et al. Effect of oral contraceptive use on reoperation following surgery for Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 1992;37:1377–1382.
Wright, JP. Factors influencing first relapse in patients with Crohn's disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992;15:12–16.
Wakefield, AJ, Sawyerr, AM, Dhillon, AP, et al. Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease: Multifocal gastrointestinal infarction. Lancet 1989;2:1057–1062.
Polanczyk, MJ, Hopke, C, Vandenbark, AA, et al. Estrogen-mediated immunomodulation involves reduced activation of effector T cells, potentiation of Treg cells, and enhanced expression of the PD-1 costimulatory pathway. J Neurosci Res 2006;84:370–378.
Cutolo, M, Capellino, S, Sulli, A, et al. Estrogens and autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1089:538–547.
Dickersin, K, Higgins, K, Meinert, CL. Identification of meta-analyses. The need for standard terminology. Control Clin Trials 1990;11:52–66.
Gilbody, SM, Song, F. Publication bias and the integrity of psychiatry research. Psychol Med 2000;30:253–258.
Egger, M, Smith, GD. Bias in location and selection of studies. BMJ 1998;316:61–66.