Roth, MP, Petersen, GM, McElree, C, et al. Geographic origins of Jewish patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1989;97:900–904.
Oudkerk Pool, M, Roca, M, Reumaux, D, et al. The value of P-anca as a serological marker for ulcerative colitis in different European regions. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1994;6:399–403.
Shanahan, F, Duerr, RH, Rotter, JI, et al. Neutrophil autoantibodies in ulcerative colitis: Familial aggregation and genetic heterogenety. Gastroenterology 1992;103:456–461.
Russel, MGVM, Pastoor, CJ, Janssen, KMW, et al. Familial aggregation of inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based study in South Limburg, The Netherlands. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997;32(suppl 223):88–91.
Jick, H, Walker, AM Cigarette smoking and ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 1983;308:261–263.
Persson, PG, Ahlbom, A, Hellers, G Inflammatory bowel disease and tobacco smoke: A case control study. Gut 1990;31:1377–1381.
Russel, MGVM, Volovics, A, Schoon, EJ, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease: Is there any relationship between smoking status and disease presentation? Results of the European collaborative study on inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1998;4:182–186.
Burnham, WR, Lennard-Jones, JE Mycobacterial disease as a possible cause of IBD. Lancet 1978;2693–2696.
Thompson, NP, Montgomery, SM, Pounder, RE, et al. Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?. Lancet 1995;345:1071–1074.
Martini, GA, Brandes, JW Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates in patients with Crohn's disease. Klinische Wochenschrift 1976;54:367–377.
Mayberry, JF, Rhodes, J, Newcombe, RG Increased sugar consumption in Crohn's disease. Digestion 1980;20:323–326.
Penny, WJ, Mayberry, JF, Aggett, PJ, et al. Relationship between trace elements, sugar consumption, and taste in Crohn's disease. Gut 1983;24:288–292.
Jarnerot, G, Jarnmark, I, Nilsson, K Consumption of refined sugar by patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 1983;18:999–1002.
Thornton, JR, Emmet, PM, Heaton, KW Diet and ulcerative colitis. Br Med J 1980;2:293–294.
Thornton, JR, Emmet, PM, Heaton, KW Smoking, sugar and inflammatory bowel disease. Br Med J 1985;290:1786–1787.
Panza, E, Franceschi, S, La Vecchia, C, et al. Dietary factors in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Ital J Gastroenterol 1987;19:205–209.
Persson, PG, Ahlbom, A, Hellers, G Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: A case control study. Epidemiology 1992;3:47–52.
Reif, S, Klein, I, Lubin, F, et al. Pre-ilness dietary factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1997;40:754–760.
Epidemiology Group of the Research Committee of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Japan Dietary and other risk factors of ulcerative colitis: A case control study in Japan. J Clin Gastroenterol 1994;19:166–171.
Tragnone, A, Valpiani, D, Miglio, F, et al. Dietary habits as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995;7:47–51.
Riordan, AM, Ruxton, CHS, Hunter, JO A review of associations between Crohn's disease and consumption of sugars. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:229–238.
van Staveren, WA, Deurenberg, P, Katan, MB, et al. Validity of the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat tissue microbiopsies as an estimate of the long-term average fatty acid composition of the diet of separate individuals. Am J Epidemiol 1986;123:455–463.
Field, CJ, Angel, A, Clandinin, MT Relationship of diet to the fatty acid composition of human adipose tissue structural and stored lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:1206–1220.
Tjonneland, A, Overvad, K, Thorling, E, et al. Adipose tissue fatty acids as biomarkers of dietary exposure in Danish men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:629–633.
London, SJ, Sacks, FM, Caesar, J, et al. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:340–345.
Dayton, S, Hashimoto, S, Dixon, W Composition of lipids in human serum and adipose tissue during prolonged feeding of a diet high in unsaturated fat. J Lipid Res 1966;7:103–111.
Willet, W Nutritional epidemiology. Monographs in epidemiology and biostatistics. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England, 1990.
Lennard-Jones, JE Classification of inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989;24(suppl 170):2–6.
Truelove, SC, Witts, LJ Cortisone in ulcerative colitis. Br Med J 1955;29:1047–1048.
Beal, VA The nutritional history in longitudinal reseach. J Am Diet Assoc 1967;51:426–432.
Al, MDM, Badart-Smook, A, v Houwelingen, AC, et al. Fat intake of women during normal pregnancy: Relationship with maternal and neonatal essential fatty acid status. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:49–55.
NEVO Foundation. Dutch food composition table 1989–1990. Voorlichtingsbureau voor de Voeding: The Hague, The Netherlands (in Dutch).
Bligh, EG, Dyer, WJ A rapid method for total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 1959;37:911–917.
Morrison, WR, Smith, LM Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron fluoride methanol. J Lipid Res 1964;5:600–608.
Foreman-van Drongelen, MMHP, v Houwelingen, AC, Kester, ADM, et al. Long-chain polyene status of preterm infants with regard to the fatty acid composition of their diet. Comparison between absolute and relative fatty acid levels in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids. Br J Nutr 1995;73:405–422.
Breslow, NE, Day, NE Statistical methods in cancer research. In: Breslow NE, ed. The analysis of case control studies. IARC: Lyon, 1980;32:327–331.
Perneger, A What is wrong with Bonferroni adjustments?. Br Med J 1998;316:1236–1238.
Guthy, E Morbus Crohn und nahrungsfette. Hypothese zur aetiologie der enteritis regionalis. Dtsch Med Wschr 1982;107:71–73.
Stenson, WF, Cort, D, Rodgers, J, et al. Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:609–614.
Aslan, A, Triadafilipoulos, F Fish oil fatty acid supplementation in active ulcerative colitis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Am J Gastroenterol 1992;87:432–437.
Hawthorne, AB, Daneshmend, TK, Hawkey, C Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil supplementation: A prospective 12 month randomized controlled trial. Gut 1992;33:922–938.
Leklem, JE Vitamin B6. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. Dekker: New York, 1997:341–392.
Rask-Madsen, J Eicosanoids in inflammatory bowel disease: Advances, pitfalls and therapeutic consequences. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1989;1:133–165.
Lands, WEM Long-term fat intake and biomarkers. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:721S–725S.
Brenner, RR Nutritional and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 1981;20:41–47.
Russel, MG, Engels, LG, Muris, JW, et al. ‘Modern life’ in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease. A case-control study with special emphasis on nutritional factors. Eur J Gastroenterol 1998;10:243–249.