A pilot observational exposure study was performed to evaluate methods for collecting multimedia measurements (air, dust, food, urine) and activity patterns to assess potential exposures of young children to pesticides in their homes. Nine children (mean age=5 years) and their caregivers participated in this study, performed in the Duval County, Florida, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Duval County Health Department. For all nine children, the total time reported for sleeping and napping ranged from 9.5 to 14 h per day, indoor quiet time from 0 to 5.5 h per day, indoor active time from 0.75 to 5.5 h per day, outdoor quiet time from 0 to 1.5 h per day, and outdoor active time from 0.5 to 6.5 h per day. Each home had one to three pesticide products present, with aerosols being most common. Pesticide inventories, however, were not useful for predicting pesticide levels in the home. Synthetic pyrethroids were the most frequently identified active ingredients in the products present in each home. Fifteen pesticide active ingredients were measured in the application area wipes (not detected (ND) to 580 ng/cm2), 13 in the play area wipes (ND-117 ng/cm2), and 14 in the indoor air samples (ND-378 ng/m3) and the socks (ND-1000 ng/cm2). Cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin, and cypermethrin were measured in all nine homes. Chlorpyrifos was measured in all nine homes even though it was not reported used by the participants. All urine samples contained measurable concentrations of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The median 3-PBA urinary concentration for the nine children was 2.2 μg/l. A wide variety of pesticide active ingredients were measured in these nine homes at median concentrations that were often higher than reported previously in similar studies. These data highlight the need for additional observational studies in regions where pesticides are used in order to understand the factors that affect young children's exposures and the education/mitigation strategies that can be used to reduce children's exposures.
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Quantifying children's aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of EPA's probabilistic SHEDS-Multimedia model
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology Open Access 21 March 2012
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The United States Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development partially funded and collaborated in the research described here under contract number 68-D-99-011 to Battelle Memorial Institute. It has been subjected to Agency administrative review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. We thank the children and their caregivers for participating in this study, Carry W. Croghan at the EPA for help with the data, and Linda S. Sheldon for constructive comments on the manuscript.
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Tulve, N., Egeghy, P., Fortmann, R. et al. Multimedia measurements and activity patterns in an observational pilot study of nine young children. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 18, 31–44 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500600
- activity patterns
- young children
- observational study
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