Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized values of metabolic equivalents of work (METS) for the activity being performed and converted into activity-specific oxygen consumption estimates. However, oxygen consumption remains elevated after a moderate- or high-intensity activity is completed. This effect, which is termed excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), requires upward adjustment of the METS estimates that follow high-energy expenditure events, to model subsequent increased ventilation and intake dose rates. In addition, since an individual's capacity for work decreases during extended activity, methods are also required to adjust downward those METS estimates that exceed physiologically realistic limits over time. A unified method for simultaneously performing these adjustments is developed. The method simulates a cumulative oxygen deficit for each individual and uses it to impose appropriate time-dependent reductions in the METS time series and additions for EPOC. The relationships between the oxygen deficit and METS limits are nonlinear and are derived from published data on work capacity and oxygen consumption. These modifications result in improved modeling of ventilation patterns, and should improve intake dose estimates associated with exposure to airborne environmental contaminants.
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The work reported here was funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency under contract numbers EP-D-05-065 and 68-D-00-206 to Alion Science and Technology Inc. Its contents are solely the authors' responsibility and do not necessarily represent official views of the Agency. The paper has been subjected to the Agency's review process and has been approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for use. The authors gratefully acknowledge the input of John Langstaff and Harvey Richmond of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Dr. Stephen Graham of EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory. The authors also thank the two anonymous peer reviewers for their helpful suggestions. The authors acknowledge the monetary and intellectual support on this project provided to us by Dr. Larry Cupitt, associate director of EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory.
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Isaacs, K., Glen, G., Mccurdy, T. et al. Modeling energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in human exposure models: accounting for fatigue and EPOC. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 18, 289–298 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500594
- exposure modeling
- energy expenditure
- oxygen deficit
- inhalation exposure
- oxygen consumption
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