There are many physical and chemical processes that affect the accumulation of outdoor pollutants. In recent years some of the information and concepts previously ascribed to outdoor pollution has been found to be useful in examining indoor dynamic and chemical processes. Further, becau se of the confining nature of the indoor environment, processes such as the “grasshopper effect” can lead to sustained higher levels of semivolatile chemicals indoors and affect multiroute (inhalation, dermal, incidental dietary, and nondietary ingestion) exposures. Such processes can also lead to a complex mixture of both semivolatile and volatile compounds in indoor air and on surfaces or within objects. This article specifically examines the above in combination with another indoor issue, indoor chemistry, and places the results into a context that can be used to evaluate (1) multipollutant cumulative or aggregate exposures and risks indoors, (2) exposure reduction strategies that can create healthy indoor environments. It is not a review of the entire field of the indoor environment or indoor air or the indoor environment, which has been covered in numerous volumes and reports. The complexities of the scientific issues are discussed by also placing them into our traditional approaches outdoor and indoor to pollution management, to indicate the difficulty in establishing the exposures that require mitigation or prevention. Further, some emerging issues are discussed as well as how to specifically address long-term single or multiroute exposures to semivolatile compounds within the “Total Indoor Environment.”
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The author thanks Drs. J. Zhang and C. Weisel of EOHSI, and Dr N. Freeman, U. Florida, for their assistance in reviewing the manuscript, and their excellent comments and suggestions for improvement, and Dr. C. Weschler of EOHSI for our continuing discussions on total exposure and the indoor environment. The author thanks the many people who have conducted indoor research over the past 30 years, and helped improve our current understanding of fundamental issues. The research supported by the Center for Exposure and Risk Modeling (CERM) (Grant No.: CR8162501); the Center for Childhood Neurotoxicology and Exposure Assessment (POIES11256-01), and the NIEHS Center at EOHSI (Grant No.: P30 ESO5022).
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Lioy, P. Employing dynamical and chemical processes for contaminant mixtures outdoors to the indoor environment: The implications for total human exposure analysis and prevention. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 16, 207–224 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500456
- multi-route exposure
- semivolatile chemicals
- total indoor environment
- Grasshopper effect
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