Figure 1 | Journal of Perinatology

Figure 1

From: Long-Term Programming Effects of Early Nutrition — Implications for the Preterm Infant

Figure 1

(a) Preterm infants randomly assigned for on average their first 4 weeks to a standard versus nutrient-enriched preterm formula (1980s; when standard formulas were often used). The data show that in the more vulnerable male, those fed the standard formula had a major reduction in overall IQ and a 12 point reduction in verbal IQ 7 to 8 years later (96% fallow-up rate). (b) Infants randomly assigned to diet as above, at 7 to 8 years (both sexes combined). Those fed the standard formula in the neonatal period had a major increase in ‘neurocognitive impairment’, defined here as either motor impairment or moderate (or worse) impairment of IQ (scores <85).

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