Progression of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) to single or multiple pneumatoceles is uncommon, but may be seen in extremely premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on mechanical ventilation, after bacterial pneumonia and after suction catheter-induced airway trauma. While most premature infants with pneumatoceles are managed conservatively, mechanical decompression may be necessary.1–3 Prior descriptions of neonatal intensive-care management of pneumatoceles in premature infants are individual case reports. We report the case of a 1-month-old extremely premature infant with RDS and respiratory failure from superimposed respiratory syncytial viral pneumonitis, PIE, and an enlarging pneumatocele, which was successfully managed with a percutaneously placed pigtail catheter.
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Fujii, A., Moulton, S. Percutaneous Catheter Evacuation of a Pneumatocele in an Extremely Premature Infant with Respiratory Failure. J Perinatol 23, 516–518 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7210964
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