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Changes in Early-Onset Group B Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Disease With Changing Recommendations For Prophylaxis


OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of early-onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcal (EOGBS) infection and the association between changes in the incidence and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP).

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective population survey of infants with GBS at <7 days of age with a nested case–control study of non-GBS infants over the same time period, January 1985 to December 1998. The incidence of GBS and maternal antibiotic treatment during labor was analyzed as a function of time period: prior to publication of guidelines for prevention of EOGBS (1985–1992), following AAP/ACOG guidelines (1993–1995), and following CDC consensus guidelines (1996–1998).

RESULTS: Fifty-six cases of EOGBS infection occurred among 53,088 live births. The incidence declined from 1.5/1000 before any guidelines to 0.67/1000 after AAP/ACOG guidelines (p=0.004), and continued to decline after the CDC consensus statement (0.28/1000) (p=0.38). IAP remained stable (33% of at risk mothers) until after introduction of the CDC consensus guidelines (59%, p=0.02).

CONCLUSION: IAP did not fully explain the decline in EOGBS incidence in our center.

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Uy, I., D'Angio, C., Menegus, M. et al. Changes in Early-Onset Group B Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Disease With Changing Recommendations For Prophylaxis. J Perinatol 22, 516–522 (2002).

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