Table 6 Studies examining the association between stopping smoking and AMD: ex-smokers vs never-smokers

From: Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association

Study AMD type Relative risk or odds ratio (95% CI)
Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands29 Neovascular AMD RR 2.1 (1.1–3.9)
  Atrophic AMD RR 0.9 (0.4–2.2)
Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia30 Early ARM OR 1.03 (0.93–1.14)
  All late AMD OR 1.83 (1.07–3.13)
  Atrophic AMD OR 2.13 (0.82–5.56)
  Neovascular AMD OR 1.26 (0.69–2.28)
Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia33 (5-year follow-up) Early ARM OR 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
  Atrophic AMD OR 0.7 (0.2–2.4)
  Neovascular AMD OR 0.9 (0.3–2.3)
  Any late lesions OR 0.9 (0.4–2.1)
POLA Study, France31 All late AMD OR 2.8 (1.1–6.9)
Visual Impairment Project32 AMD OR 1.01 (0.42–2.40)
Physicians' Health Study, USA19 All AMD RR 1.30 (0.99–1.70)
  Neovascular AMD RR 1.06 (0.61–1.85)
Nurses' Health Study, USA20 All AMD RR 1.8 (1.3–2.5)
Beaver Dam Eye Study, USA36 (5-year follow-up) Incidence early ARM M RR 0.95 (0.55–1.62)
   F RR 1.18 (0.78–1.80)
Beaver Dam Eye Study, USA37 (10-year follow-up) Incidence early ARM RR 1.1 (0.85–1.47)
  Incidence late ARM RR 0.61 (0.33–1.13)
Eye Disease Case–Control Study, USA22 Neovascular AMD OR 1.5 (1.1–2.1), P=0.02
Japan25 Neovascular AMD OR 2.09 (0.71–6.13)