Table 5 Studies examining the association between smoking and AMD: dose–response

From: Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association

Study AMD type Relative risk or odds ratio (95% CI) compared with never-smokers
Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands29 Neovascular AMD 1–9 pack-years: OR 2.1 (0.7–6.2)
   10–19 pack-years: OR 7.1 (2.10–19.0)
   20–29 pack-years: OR 8.6 (3.0–24.8)
   ≥30 pack-years: OR 5.7 (2.2–14.5)
POLA Study, France31 All late AMD 1–19 pack-years: OR 1.8 (0.5–6.2)
   10–19 pack-years: OR 2.1 (0.6–7.4)
   ≥20 pack-years: OR 4.8 (1.8–12.9)
Visual Impairment Project, Australia32 Any ARM including AMD Current smoker >40 years: OR 1.30 (1.02–1.66)
  AMD ≤20 pack-years: OR 0.94 (0.33–2.70)
   >20 pack-years: OR 1.67 (0.69–4.00)
   Current smoker >40 years: OR 2.39 (1.02–5.57)
Physicians' Health Study, USA19 All AMD <20 cigarettes/day: RR 1.26 (0.61–2.9)
   ≥20 cigarettes/day: RR 2.46 (1.60–3.79)
Nurses' Health Study, USA20 All AMD 1–14 cigarettes/day: RR 1.6 (0.9–2.8)
   ≥25 cigarettes/day: RR 2.4 (1.4–4.0)
Beaver Dam Eye Study, USA36 (5-year follow-up) Incidence early ARM Per 10 pack-years:
   M RR 1.06 (1.00–1.13), P=0.06
   F RR 0.94 (0.84–1.06)
  Progression of ARM Per 10 pack-years:
   M RR 1.09 (1.02–1.17), P=0.014
   F RR 1.05 (0.94–1.17)
Beaver Dam Eye Study, USA37 (10-year follow-up) Incidence early ARM <15 pack-years: RR 1.24 (0.89–1.72)
   15–34 pack-years: RR 1.03 (0.72–1.47)
   ≥35 pack-years: RR 1.24 (0.89–1.74)
  Incidence late ARM <15 pack-years: RR 0.42 (0.16–1.08)
   15 to 34 pack-years: RR 0.63 (0.26–1.55)
   ≥35 pack-years: RR 0.76 (0.36–1.62)
Japan25 Neovascular AMD Duration of smoking ≤29 years
   1.86 (0.59–5.84)
   Duration of smoking 30–39 years
   2.38 (0.77–7.35)
   Duration of smoking ≥40 years
   3.79 (1.13–12.70), P<0.05