Table 2 Prospective cohort studies examining the association between smoking and AMD: current-smokers vs never-smokers (unless otherwise stated)

From: Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association

Study Follow-up (years) Subjects AMD types Number with AMD Relative risk (95% CI) Adjusted for confounders?
Physicians' Health Study, USA19 7 21 157 All AMD 268 Current-smokers <20/day vs never-smokers: 1.26 (0.61–2.90) Yes
      Current-smokers ≥20/day vs never-smokers: 2.46 (1.60–3.79)  
    Neovascular AMD 64 1.95 (0.89–4.24)  
Nurses' Health Study, USA20 12 31 843 All AMD 65 1.70 (1.20–2.50) Yes
Beaver Dam Eye 5 3583 Incidence early ARM 265 M 1.53 (0.81–2.88) Yes
Study, USA36      F 0.74 (0.40–1.35)  
    Progression of ARM 188 M 2.34 (1.00–5.44)  
      F 1.00 (0.50–2.01)  
Beaver Dam Eye 10 3684 Incidence early ARM 345 1.37 (0.98–1.94) Yes
Study, USA37    Progression of ARM 365 1.34 (0.94–1.91)  
Blue Mountains Eye 5 2335 Early ARM 193 0.94 (0.70–1.20) Yes
Study, Australia33    Atrophic AMD 17 3.60 (1.10–11.30)  
    Neovascular AMD 23 1.60 (0.40–5.70)  
    Any late lesions 34 2.50 (1.00–6.20)  
    Incidence late ARM 26 1.50 (0.40–5.30)  
  1. The reported relative risks are presented as a pooled estimate for males (M) and females (F) except where reported separately.