Table 1 Cross-sectional studies examining the association between smoking and AMD: current-smokers vs never-smokers (unless stated otherwise)

From: Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association

Study Subjects AMD type Number with AMD Odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted for confounders?
Chesapeake Bay Watermen Study, USA18 769 All AMD 96 Ever-smokers vs never-smokers: 0.61 (0.35–1.05) Yes
Copenhagen Study, 773 All AMD 112 2.4 (P<0.05) No
Denmark34   Atrophic AMD 88 2.5 (P<0.01)  
   Neovascular AMD 24 1.5 (NS)  
Beaver Dam Eye Study, USA28 4771 Early ARM 745 Ever-smokers vs never-smokers:
M 1.29 (0.98–1.70)
F 1.02 (0.81–1.29)
Yes
   Neovascular AMD 58 Current-smokers vs never-smokers or ex-smokers:
M 3.29 (1.03–10.50)
F 2.50 (1.01–6.20)
 
     Ever-smokers vs never-smokers:
M 2.86 (0.64–12.7)
F 2.06 (1.03–4.10)
 
Rotterdam Study, 6174 Neovascular AMD 65 RR 3.6 (1.8–7.4) Yes
The Netherlands29   Atrophic AMD 36 RR 1.5 (0.6–3.9)  
Blue Mountains Eye Study, 3654 Early ARM 231 1.89 (1.25–2.84) Yes
Australia30   All late AMD 58 4.46 (2.20–9.03)  
   Atrophic AMD 19 4.94 (1.29–18.82)  
   Neovascular AMD 47 3.26 (1.45–7.33)  
POLA Study, France31 2196 All late AMD 41 3.5 (1.0–12.2), P=0.04 Yes
Visual Impairment Project, 4744 Any ARM including AMD 685 1.01 (0.80–1.29) Yes
Australia32   AMD 30 2.38 (0.83–6.80)  
  1. The reported odds ratios are presented as a pooled estimate for males (M) and females (F) except where reported separately; NS=nonsignificant.