Table 2 Summary: fruit and vegetables and risk of common cancers

From: Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

Cancer site Current evidence for association with fruit and vegetables Comments
Gastrointestinal tract
 Oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus Consistent inverse association Not clear if causal – might be due to residual confounding by other factors such as tobacco and alcohol
 Stomach Generally little or no association
 Colorectum Inconsistent, weak, inverse association Could be due to protective effect of dietary fibre
Lung Inconsistent, weak, inverse association Could be due to residual confounding by smoking
Breast Little or no association
Prostate Little or no association