Table 1 A summary of studies on the association between pickled vegetables and risk of oesophageal cancer

From: Pickled vegetables and the risk of oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

Study/Literature Study place (period) Case/control Studied variable Consumption rate/Matched/Adjusted a Study design
Kinjo et al, 1998/E Japan; Kagoshima, Okayama, Hyogo, Osaka, Aichi, Miyagi (1966–1981) 440/220 272 Pickles No/No/Yes Cohort; the outcome was oesophageal cancer death
Zhang et al, 2000/C China; Cixian (1973–1997) 350/350 P. V. Yes/Yes/No P-B CCS
Tao et al, 1999/E China; Shanghai (1984–1988) 71/1122 P. V. Yes/No/Yes Nested CCS (only men); the outcome was oesophageal cancer death
Hu et al, 1994/E China; Heilongjiang (1985–1989) 196/392 P. Chinese cabbage No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Tran et al, 2005/E China; Linxian (1986–2001) 1958/29 584 P. V. No/No/Yes Cohort
Ren and Han, 1991/C China; Tangshan (1987–1989) 112/112 P. V. Yes/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Wang et al, 1992 (Study I)/E China; Shanxi: high-risk area (1988–1989) 210/396 P. V. juice Yes/Yes/Yes CCS; H-B cases, P-B controls
Wang et al, 1992 (Study II)/E China; Shanxi: moderate-risk area (1988–1989) 116/396 P. V. juice Yes/Yes/Yes CCS; H-B cases, P-B controls
Chu et al, 1993/C China; Huaian (1988–1989) 151/151 P. V. Yes/Yes/Nob P-B CCS
Liu et al, 2001a/C China; Tianjin (1988–1989) 165/165 P. V. Yes/Yes/No P-B CCS (only men)
Cheng et al, 1992/E Hong Kong (1989–1990) 400/1598 P. V. Yes/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Wang et al, 1993/C China; Yanting (1990–1991) 155/155 P. V. No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Chen et al, 1995/C China; Jintang (1990–1992) 148/296 P. V. Yes/Yes/No P-B CCS
Shen et al, 1997/C China; Huaian (1993–1994) 158/158 P. V. Yes/Yes/Nob P-B CCS
Wang et al, 1999/C China; Yangzhong (1994–1995) 68/68 P. V. No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Gao et al, 1999/E China; Yangzhong (1995) 81/234 P. V. Yes/Yes/Yes P-B CCS
Ji, 1999/C China; Linxian (1995–1996) 67/65 P. V. Yes/No/Yes H-B CCS
Chen et al, 2003/C China; Linxian (1995–1997) 702/702 P. V. No/Yes/Yes P-B CCS
Huang et al, 2000/C China; Meizhou (1996–1999) 150/150 P. V. No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Takezaki et al, 2001/E China; Pizhou (1996–2000) 199/333 P. V. No/No/Yes CCS; H-B cases, P-B controls
Hung et al, 2004/E Taiwan (1996–2002) 364/532 Preserved and P. V. Yes/Yes/Yes H-B CCS (only men)
Chen et al, 2000/C China; Rugao (1997–1998) 100/100 P. V. No/Yes/No H-B CCS
Phukan et al, 2001/E India; Assam (1997–1998) 502/1004 Pickles Yes/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Li and Yu, 2003/E China; Chaoshan (1997–2000) 1248/1248 Pickles No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Xibib et al, 2003/E China; Linxian (1998–2000) 211/633 Salted or P. V. No/Yes/Yes P-B CCS
Qi et al, 2001/C China; Pizhou (1999) 103/103 P. V. No/Yes/Yes P-B CCS
Liu et al, 2001b/C China; Tianjin (1999) 86/158 P. V. No/No/Yes P-B CCS
Gao et al, 2001/C China; Huai’an (1999–2000) 93/98 P. V. No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Chen et al, 2004/C China; Rugao (1999–2000) 100/100 P. V. No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Chitra et al, 2004/E India; Coimbatore (1999–2000) 90/90 Pickles Yes/Yes/No H-B CCS
Peng et al, 2005/C China; Anxi (2001–2002) 237/237 P. V. No/Yes/Yes H-B CCS
Feng et al, 2008b/C China; Changzhi (2001–2005) 201/201 P. V. Yes/Yes/No H-B CCS
Yang et al, 2005/E China; Yanting (2003–2004) 185/185 P. V. Yes/Yes/Yes CCS; H-B cases, P-B controls
Zhao et al, 2003/C China; Feicheng (not reported) 217/212 P. V. Yes/No/Yes CCS. Origin of cases was not reported. Controls were healthy residents in a high-risk village
  1. Abbreviations: C=Chinese; CCS=case–control study; E=English; H-B=hospital-based; P=pickled; P-B=population-based; V=vegetable.
  2. aThis column shows whether the proportion of cases and controls who consumed the studied variables were reported/group- or individual-matching of controls to cases for age/reporting adjusted ORs for the association between consumption of pickled vegetables and cancer.
  3. bAdjusted ORs were also reported for these studies but because 95% CIs were not presented (Supplementary Table 1), we included their univariate results in the meta-analysis.