Table 2: Numbers of incident malignant cancers (N) and relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) by diet group among 33 697 meat eaters, 8901 fish eaters and 21 810 vegetariansa

From: Cancer incidence in British vegetarians

Cancer siteMeat eaterFish eaterVegetarianP for heterogeneity
(ICD-10 codes)NRRNRR (95% CI)NRR (95% CI) 
Upper GI tract (C00-10, 13, 15)561.0040.44 (0.16–1.25)180.81 (0.45–1.46)0.218
Stomach (C16)381.0020.29 (0.07–1.20)90.36 (0.16–0.78)0.007
Colorectum (C18–20)2431.00310.77 (0.53–1.13)1101.12 (0.87–1.44)0.177
 Colon (C18)1561.00170.68 (0.41–1.14)661.12 (0.81–1.54)0.173
 Rectum (C19–20)871.00140.92 (0.51–1.64)441.12 (0.75–1.67)0.776
Pancreas (C25)461.0060.82 (0.34–1.96)190.94 (0.52–1.71)0.898
Lung (C34)1141.0080.59 (0.29–1.23)431.11 (0.75–1.65)0.225
Melanoma (C43)1151.00210.90 (0.55–1.47)490.89 (0.61–1.29)0.799
Female breast (C50)6541.001331.05 (0.86–1.28)2370.91 (0.77–1.08)0.383
Cervix (C53)171.00102.05 (0.91–4.63)232.08 (1.05–4.12)0.069
Endometrium (C54)711.0080.61 (0.29–1.30)220.75 (0.45–1.28)0.304
Ovary (C56)981.0080.37 (0.18–0.77)340.69 (0.45–1.07)0.007
Prostate (C61)2071.00140.57 (0.33–0.99)700.87 (0.64–1.18)0.092
Kidney (C64)371.0020.36 (0.09–1.52)110.76 (0.36–1.58)0.252
Bladder (C67)651.0070.81 (0.36–1.81)130.47 (0.25–0.89)0.050
Brain (C71)441.00111.39 (0.69–2.80)261.25 (0.72–2.16)0.581
Lymphatic/haematopoietic tissue (C81–96)1801.00280.85 (0.56–1.29)490.55 (0.39–0.78)0.002
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (C82–85)811.00130.86 (0.47–1.58)230.57 (0.35–0.95)0.079
 Multiple myeloma (C90)341.0040.72 (0.25–2.10)40.25 (0.08–0.73)0.015
 Leukaemia (C91–95)511.00101.18 (0.58–2.40)170.78 (0.43–1.43)0.565
        
All sites (C00–97)22041.003170.82 (0.73–0.93)8290.88 (0.81–0.96)0.001
  1. ICD=International Classification of Diseases; GI=gastrointestinal.
  2. aEstimated by Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the underlying time variable, adjusted for smoking (never smoker, former smoker, light smoker (<15 cigarettes per day, or cigar or pipe smokers only), heavy smoker (≥15 cigarettes per day)), alcohol consumption (<1, 1–7, 8–15, 16+ g ethanol per day, unknown), body mass index (<20.0, 20.0–22.4, 22.5–24.9, 25.0–27.4, 27.5+ kg m−2, unknown), physical activity level (low, high, unknown) and, for the women-only cancers, parity (none, 1–2, 3+, unknown) and oral contraceptive use (ever, never, unknown), and stratified by sex (where appropriate) and study/method of recruitment, using separate models for each end point.