Table 2 Median (5–95 percentile) concentrations of phyto-oestrogensa among controls by country

From: Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Phyto-oestrogen (ng ml–1) Denmark n =288 Germany n =201 Greece n =9 Italy n =62 The Netherlands n =25 Spain n =93 Sweden n =186 The United Kingdom n =178 Total n =1042
Genistein 2.0 (0.05–23.8) 2.2 (0.05–23.5) 0.05 (0.05–17.2) 1.3 (0.05–10.3) 4.6 (0.2–40.1) 1.2 (0.05–7.4) 1.1 (0.05–14.9) 5.4 (0.2–41.5) 2.1 (0.05–24.5)
Daidzein 1.4 (0.05–12.8) 1.0 (0.05–13.9) 0.3 (0.05–0.9) 0.3 (0.05–16.2) 2.7 (0.5–25.0) 0.5 (0.05–2.4) 0.6 (0.05–7.8) 3.6 (0.2–20.2) 1.1 (0.05–13.9)
Equol 0.1 (0.05–0.9) 0.05 (0.05–0.7) 0.05 (0.05–0.6) 0.05 (0.05–1.7) 0.05 (0.05–0.5) 0.1 (0.05–0.7) 0.5 (0.05–1.4) 0.15 (0.05–0.8) 0.1 (0.05–1.0)
Enterolactone 5.5 (0.6–28.1) 3.6 (0.3–15.1) 2.0 (0.9–40.1) 2.7 (0.1–17.0) 3.8 (0.05–23.0) 2.2 (0.2–8.2) 3.6 (0.7–16.2) 3.7 (0.5–21.0) 3.7 (0.4–20.4)
Enterodiol 0.4 (0.05–6.6) 0.3 (0.05–3.5) 0.1 (0.05–0.8) 0.4 (0.05–2.9) 0.1 (0.05–3.7) 0.1 (0.05–1.3) 0.2 (0.05–1.6) 0.3 (0.05–2.1) 0.3 (0.05–2.9)
  1. aFor participants with undetected phyto-oestrogens levels, data were imputed at 0.05 ng ml–1, half the lower limit of detection.