Table 1 Diagnostic T-stage, Gleason score, PSA levels (ng ml–1) before start of treatment

From: Prostate cancer-derived urine exosomes: a novel approach to biomarkers for prostate cancer

   Diagnostic stage (before any treatment) PCa biomarkers (in exosome fraction)
Group Patient Grade Gleason PSA TMPRSS2:ERG PCA-3
Untreated P1 T3,Nx,M0 9 25 + +
  P2 T2c,Nx,M0 7 24 + +
  P3 T2,Nx,M0 6 7 +
  P4 T2,Nx,M0 6 4 +
ADT treated       
  P5 T3,Nx,M0 7 13
  P6 T2,Nx,M0 7 3
Verified bone metastases       
  P7# T2,Nx,M0 7 11
  P8* T3,Nx,M1 8 64
  P9* T2,Nx,M0 8 NA
  P10 T1c,Nx,M0 7 14 NA NA
  P11 T3,Nx,M0 8 5 NA NA
  1. ADT=androgen deprivation therapy; NA=not analysed/not available; PCa=prostate cancer; PSA=prostate-specific antigen.
  2. Patients grouped into four categories; untreated, treated with androgen deprivation therapy/medical castration (ADT), patients with verified bone metastases, either medically castrated* or prostatectomised#, and patients for electron microscopy (EM). Detected PCa biomarkers among the patients enroled in pilot study.