Impact of vaccination coverage, screening coverage, and vaccine efficacy on clinical benefits. This figure depicts how cancer reduction is influenced by different levels of vaccination and screening coverage with a combined strategy of vaccination plus screening three times per lifetime using two-visit HPV DNA testing. Cancer reduction is on the y axis, and vaccination coverage on the x axis. The coloured bars represent different coverage levels for screening (pale yellow, 20%; gold, 40%; green, 60%; orange, 80%; blue, 100%). The lines represent a strategy of vaccination alone at different levels of vaccine efficacy (white, 70%; light grey, 80%; dark grey, 90%; black, 100%). The dashed red line represents a threshold of 50% cancer reduction.