Table 3 Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer among 142 520 men in the EPIC cohort by fifths of observed intake of meat, fish and dairy foods

From: Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

  Fifth of food intake  
  1 2 3 4 5  
Food No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) No. of cases HR (95% CI) P trend a
Meat and meat products b 442 1.00 (referent) 601 1.08 (0.95–1.23) 512 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 473 0.99 (0.86–1.15) 413 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.85
 Red meatb 499 1.00 (referent) 602 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 532 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 437 0.97 (0.84–1.12) 371 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 0.69
 Poultry 738 1.00 (referent) 534 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 517 1.11 (0.98–1.25) 471 1.07 (0.95–1.21) 467 1.12 (0.98–1.27) 0.06
 Processed meat 345 1.00 (referent) 586 1.06 (0.92–1.22) 577 1.03 (0.89–1.19) 629 1.03 (0.89–1.20) 590 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.54
Fish and fish products 431 1.00 (referent) 464 1.00 (0.87–1.14) 582 1.09 (0.96–1.25) 585 1.02 (0.90–1.17) 665 1.05 (0.91–1.20) 0.56
 White fishc 436 1.00 (referent) 260 1.08 (0.91–1.27) 319 0.97 (0.83–1.13) 452 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 554 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 0.90
 Fatty fish 579 1.00 (referent) 382 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 562 1.05 (0.94–1.19) 538 1.03 (0.92–1.17) 666 1.07 (0.95–1.21) 0.95
Milk and milk beverages 470 1.00 (referent) 489 1.00 (0.88–1.14) 517 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 594 0.97 (0.85–1.10) 657 1.01 (0.89–1.16) 0.23
 Yoghurt 684 1.00 (referent) 351 0.91 (0.79–1.06) 434 1.08 (0.94–1.23) 516 1.09 (0.96–1.23) 742 1.17 (1.04–1.31) 0.02
 Cheese 552 1.00 (referent) 584 0.98 (0.87–1.11) 575 1.00 (0.89–1.14) 591 1.10 (0.97–1.24) 425 1.04 (0.90–1.20) 0.58
 Eggsb 518 1.00 (referent) 474 0.98 (0.87–1.11) 441 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 514 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 494 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.33
  1. All models are stratified by centre and adjusted for education, marital status, height, weight and energy intake. Median intakes in each fifth based on 24-h recall data are: 76, 119, 140, 162 and 194 g day−1 for total meat and meat products; 28, 50, 61, 72 and 90 g day−1 for red meat; 9, 13, 19, 22 and 32 g day−1 for poultry; 16, 42, 53, 71 and 88 g day−1 for processed meat; 18, 29, 38, 49 and 78 g day−1 for fish and fish products; 13, 13, 17, 25 and 43 g day−1 for white fish; 9, 13, 16, 20 and 32 g day−1 for fatty fish; 34, 90, 200, 265 and 466 g day−1 for milk and milk beverages; 12, 10, 26, 59 and 135 g day−1 for yoghurt (also includes fromage blanc and petits suisses); 15, 28, 35, 40 and 57 g day−1 for cheese; and 9, 12, 15, 20 and 32 g day−1 for eggs.
  2. aP-values for trend are obtained by entering the continuous food intake variable in the model.
  3. bUmeå excluded due to missing data.
  4. cGermany and Umeå excluded due to missing data.