Table 3 Projected 5-year absolute risks and 95% confidence intervals for combinations of risk factors

From: The LLP risk model: an individual risk prediction model for lung cancer

     Prior diagnosis of    
Gender Age Smoking duration (Years) Family history of lung cancer a Malignancy Pneumonia Asbestos exposure Absolute risk (%) (95% CI)
Female 65 37 Late-Onset Yes 2.37 (1.14–4.86)
  68 26 1.50 (0.91–2.46)
  69 50 4.60 (2.76–7.54)
Male 64 42 Late-Onset Yes 9.53 (4.52–18.97)
  66 53 Yes 8.75 (4.89–15.18)
  66 48 Yes Yes 14.91 (7.70–26.89)
  67 0 Early-Onset Yes Yes 3.16 (1.42–6.85)
  73 59 Late-Onset Yes Yes 27.09 (13.57–46.78)
  77 0 Early-Onset Yes 3.17 (1.67–5.95)
  77 45 Early-Onset Yes 28.68 (15.07–47.67)
  1. aEarly onset=<60 years at diagnosis; Late onset =60 years at diagnosis.