Table 2 Selection of current research priorities to accelerate HPV vaccine arrival to high-risk countries for cervical and other genital cancers

From: HPV and cervical cancer: screening or vaccination?

 • Continue generating estimates of the burden of HPV and related cancer. This is particularly important in developing areas, where health statistics are of limited completeness and are likely to underestimate the extend of the cancer burden in women
 • Advance in the modelling exercises at a regional level to help estimate the incidence of cervical cancer from HPV surveys
 • Complete trials of HPV vaccines in infants with a view to its incorporation into the existing vaccination programmes
 • Complete trials of HPV vaccines in men. Studies on the potential negative impact of a gender-specific vaccination. Vaccine acceptability in different cultures should be completed
 • Complete trials in the immunosuppressed to guide use of HPV vaccines and vaccine choice in countries with high prevalence of HIV and malaria
 • Complete trials in women above the age of 26 years to estimate the full impact of strategies that include massive vaccination campaigns of women aged 9–45+ years
 • Include in the Phase IV trial designs the evaluation and rationalisation of the catch-up strategies in adult women that will occur in developed countries
 • Complete the evaluation of the impact of HPV-type-specific cross protection of current vaccines and continue research into polyvalent vaccines covering a wider spectrum of the cancer-causing HPV types
 • Advance in the evaluation of sustainable alternatives for screening in developing countries
 • Advance in the models for integration of HPV vaccines and in the definition of subsequent screening programmes for the surveillance of vaccinated women
  1. HPV=human papillomavirus.