Table 2 Cox proportional hazards rate ratios for overall mortality associated with demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics

From: Predictors of survival after hepatic resection among patients with colorectal liver metastasis

  Metachronous CLM ( N =514) Synchronous CLM (N =409) All CLMs ( N =923)
Characteristics HR (95% CI) a P -value HR (95% CI) a P -value HR (95% CI) a P -value
Demographic characteristics
 Age       
65–69 1.00   1.00   1.00  
70–74 1.07 (0.85–1.35) 0.65 1.14 (0.95–1.46) 0.53 1.13 (1.00–1.28) 0.05
75–79 1.38 (1.06–1.81) 0.03 1.23 (0.99–1.53) 0.13 1.36 (1.09–1.69) 0.04
80+ 1.92 (1.38–2.66) <0.01 1.60 (1.18–2.18) 0.01 1.87 (1.46–2.34) 0.01
 Race       
White 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Black 1.02 (0.63–1.66) 0.44 1.07 (0.81–1.23) 0.12 1.08 (0.85–1.38) 0.24
Other 1.09 (0.83–1.46) 0.12 0.97 (0.70–1.35) 0.63 0.91 (0.74–1.12) 0.44
 Sex       
Male 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Female 0.81 (0.66–1.00) 0.04 1.04 (0.88–1.24) 0.70 0.92 (0.81–1.04) 0.62
 Socioeconomic status       
1st quintile 1.00   1.00   1.00  
2nd quintile 0.94 (0.67–1.31) 0.13 0.96 (0.70–1.25) 0.43 1.04 (0.86–1.26) 0.35
3rd quintile 0.92 (0.68–1.63) 0.08 0.87 (0.66–1.13) 0.37 1.14 (0.93–1.39) 0.27
4th quintile 0.83 (0.67–1.13) 0.69 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 0.11 0.92 (0.75–1.12) 0.15
5th quintile 0.87 (0.64–1.11) 0.73 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 0.34 0.96 (0.78–1.17) 0.22
 Marital status       
Unmarried 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Married 0.92 (0.73–1.17) 0.86 0.81 (0.67–0.96) 0.03 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.05
 Area of residence       
Metropolitan 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Rural 1.25 (0.84–1.89) 0.58 0.98 (0.71–1.32) 0.51 1.11 (0.88–1.38) 0.21
 Year of receipt of liver resection       
1991–1993 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1994–1996 1.01 (0.59–1.50) 0.94 0.87 (0.65–1.38) 0.17 0.91 (0.76–1.08) 0.07
1997–1999 0.96 (0.69–1.80) 0.66 0.81 (0.70–1.10) 0.22 0.85 (0.71–1.03) 0.08
2000–2003 0.78 (0.60–1.12) 0.58 0.78 (0.65–1.07) 0.46 0.82 (0.67–1.05) 0.11
Clinical characteristics
 Site of primary tumour       
Rectal 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Colon 0.98 (0.61–1.57) 0.23 1.10 (0.83–1.46) 0.07 1.18 (0.98–1.28) 0.06
 Tumour grade of primary cancer       
Well/moderately differentiated 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Poorly/undifferentiated 1.05 (0.78–1.41) 0.54 1.38 (1.14–1.66) <0.01 1.22 (1.06–1.41) 0.04
Unknown 0.97 (0.53–1.76) 0.71 1.34 (0.56–2.31) 0.43 1.32 (1.03–1.70) 0.03
 Comorbidity score       
0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1 1.01 (0.81–1.48) 0.71 1.12 (0.87–1.43) 0.46 1.07 (0.90–1.28) 0.15
>1 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 0.39 1.52 (1.01–2.09) <0.01 1.29 (1.01–1.67) 0.05
 Number of positive lymph nodes       
0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1–3 1.11 (0.83–1.48) 0.53 1.81 (1.36–2.40) <0.01 1.41 (1.18–1.68) 0.02
4 1.24 (0.88–1.75) 0.27 2.21 (1.75–2.66) <0.01 1.81 (1.51–2.19) 0.04
Unknown 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 0.05 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 0.04 1.04 (1.02–1.06) <0.01
Treatment characteristics
 Care in teaching hospital       
No 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Yes 0.97 (0.69–1.38) 0.76 0.89 (0.72–1.09) 0.12 0.93 (0.078–1.11) 0.38
 Care in NCI-designated cancer centre       
No 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Yes 0.78 (0.60–1.00) 0.05 0.86 (0.67–1.07) 0.29 0.92 (0.79–1.06) 0.51
 Hospital procedure volume       
Low (1–8) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Medium (9–29) 0.83 (0.65–1.04) 0.26 0.71 (0.55–0.92) 0.04 0.77 (0.58–0.94) 0.03
High (>29) 0.79 (0.57–0.99) 0.04 0.65 (0.50–0.88) 0.02 0.75 (0.62–0.91) 0.02
 Chemotherapy for primary cancer       
No 1.00   NA   NA  
Yes 0.79 (0.62–0.97) 0.03     
 Chemotherapy after liver resection       
No chemotherapy 1.00   1.00   1.00  
5FU-based therapy only 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.10 0.62 (0.50–0.78) <0.01 0.76 (0.62–0.92) 0.02
HAI with FUdR and systemic 5FU 0.81 (0.25–2.26) 0.92 0.51 (0.28–0.97) 0.04 0.81 (0.42–1.57) 0.52
 Group       
Synchronous N/A   N/A   1.00  
Metachronous      0.98 (0.87–1.12) 0.14
  1. CLM=colorectal cancer liver metastasis; 5FU=5-fluorouracil; FUdR=floxuridine; HAI=hepatic arterial infusion; NA=not applicable.
  2. aOn the basis of a multiple Cox regression model in which each variable was adjusted for all others. Bold values indicate significant values.