Table 1 Clinical benefits and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios by vaccine coverage and cost per-vaccinated individuala

From: The value of including boys in an HPV vaccination programme: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a low-resource setting

   Cost per-vaccinated individual c
  Reduction in lifetime cancer riskb % $25 ($5 per dose) $50 ($12 per dose) $100 ($27 per dose) $400 ($115 per dose)
25% coverage
 Girls only 14 Cost-savingd 70 610 3450
 Girls and boys 21 110 810 2190 9370
50% coverage
 Girls only 29 Cost-savingd 30 540 3210
 Girls and boys 40 660 1740 3900 15 120
75% coverage
 Girls only 45 Cost-savingd 130 740 3940
 Girls and boys 57 2440 2180 4860 18 820
90% coverage
 Girls only 63 Cost-savingd 170 810 4180
 Girls and boys 67 9110 18 650 37 720 136 910
  1. Values represent incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (additional cost divided by additional health benefit compared to the next best strategy) expressed as cost per year of life saved (international dollar per YLS). Strategies including girls alone were compared to no vaccination.
  2. bReduction in lifetime cancer risk for all strategies was calculated against no vaccination.
  3. cCost per-vaccinated individual includes three doses, wastage, delivery, and programmatic costs, and is expressed in 2000 international dollars.
  4. dStrategies are cost-saving compared to no vaccination because the future costs averted by preventing cancer are greater than the cost of vaccination.