The Nature Index is a database of author affiliations and institutional relationships. The index tracks contributions to articles published in a group of highly selective science journals, chosen by an independent group of active researchers.

The Nature Index provides absolute counts of publication productivity at the institutional and national level and, as such, is one indicator of global high-quality research output.boxed-text

Data in the Nature Index are updated monthly, with the most recent 12 months of data made available under a Creative Commons licence at

The database is compiled by Springer Nature. The list of journals tracked by the Nature Index is under review, and from the end of 2017 will be extended to include clinical sciences.

Nature Index metrics

There are several measures provided by the Nature Index to track affiliation data. The simplest is the article count (AC). A country or institution is given an AC of 1 for each article that has at least one author from that country or institution. This is the case whether an article has one or a hundred authors, and it means that the same article can contribute to the AC of multiple countries or institutions.

To get a sense of a country or institution's contribution to an article, and to remove the possibility of counting articles more than once, the Nature Index uses the fractional count (FC), which takes into account the relative contribution of each author to an article. The total FC available per paper is 1, which is shared between all authors under the assumption that each contributed equally.

For instance, a paper with 10 authors means that each author receives an FC of 0.1. For authors who have joint affiliations, the individual FC is then split equally between each affiliation.

Another measure used is the weighted fractional count (WFC), which applies a weighting to the FC to adjust for the over-representation of papers in astronomy and astrophysics. The four journals in these disciplines publish about 50% of all papers in journals in this field — approximately five times the equivalent percentage for other fields. Therefore, although the data for astronomy and astrophysics are compiled in the same way as for all other disciplines, articles from these journals are assigned one-fifth the weight of other articles (i.e., the FC is multiplied by 0.2 to derive the WFC).

The total FC or WFC for an institution is calculated by summing the FC or WFC for individual authors.

The process is similar for countries, although complicated by the fact that some institutions have overseas labs that will be counted towards host country totals. Also, there is variability in the way authors present their affiliations. Every effort is made to count affiliations consistently, with a background of reasonable assumptions. For more information on how the affiliation information is processed and counted, see the FAQ section at

The supplement

Nature Index 2017 Japan is based on data from, covering articles published during five years from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2016. The tables in this supplement rank institutions by WFC, as it provides a more even basis for comparison across multiple disciplines, and in determining the relative contribution of each institution.

Some sections and graphics also refer to bilateral collaboration score. This is derived by adding the FC for all papers derived from a bilateral relationship for that institution. If institution A has relationships with another institution B, then the collaboration score between A and B is the sum of FC for A + B.

This issue also includes data and bespoke analyses from Web of Science and Scopus. Analyses from these sources refer to articles only.boxed-text