Table 1 Start-up sampler Universities seeking to commercialize research spin off scores of companies. These examples show the range of entrepreneurship spawned in the life sciences.

From: Start-ups: A sense of enterprise

Company University Technology Founded Financial milestone
OxSyBio University of Oxford, UK 3D printing of tissues for research and clinical applications 2014 £1 million (US$1.42 million) funding, April 2014
Semma Therapeutics Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Creation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells to treat people with diabetes 2015 $44 million funding, March 2015
Click Nucleic Acids University of Colorado, Boulder DNA analogues for applications such as therapeutics and biosensing 2015 Seeking funding
Zephyrus Biosciences University of California, Berkeley Tools to allow single-cell sequencing using western blot protein analysis 2013 $1.86 million funding, August 2014
Clyde Biosciences University of Glasgow, UK Combination of stem cells and optical detection technology to test drugs for cardiotoxicity 2012 £2 million funding, April 2015
Ex Scientia University of Dundee, UK Small-molecule drugs that bind to a combination of targets 2012 Pharmaceutical contracts worth $6 million