Table 1 Distribution of northern and southern dominating haplogroups of mtDNA

From: A spatial analysis of genetic structure of human populations in China reveals distinct difference between maternal and paternal lineages

  Frequencies in south Frequencies in north   
Haplogroup n Frequency (95% CI) (%) n Frequency (95% CI) (%) Fisher's exact text (P-value) Dominating types
A 128 5.48 (4.56, 6.41) 90 8.17 (6.56, 9.79) 0.0034 NDH
C 90 3.86 (3.07, 4.64) 72 6.54 (5.08, 8.00) 0.0007 NDH
D * 284 12.17 (10.84, 13.49) 225 20.44 (18.05, 22.82) 0.0000 NDH
D5 59 2.53 (1.89, 3.16) 47 4.27 (3.07, 5.46) 0.0079 NDH
D5a 25 1.07 (0.65, 1.49) 25 2.27 (1.39, 3.15) 0.0088 NDH
G 58 2.49 (1.85, 3.12) 65 5.90 (4.51, 7.30) 0.0000 NDH
M7c 25 1.07 (0.65, 1.49) 23 2.09 (1.33, 3.12) 0.0279 NDH
M8a 153 6.56 (5.55, 7.56) 137 12.44 (10.49, 14.39) 0.0000 NDH
M9 21 0.90 (0.52, 1.28) 25 2.27 (1.39, 3.15) 0.0021 NDH
N * 28 1.20 (0.76, 1.64) 39 3.54 (2.45, 4.63) 0.0000 NDH
Z 26 1.11 (0.69, 1.54) 39 3.54 (2.45, 4.63) 0.0000 NDH
M * 240 10.28 (9.05, 11.51) 84 7.63 (6.06, 9.19) 0.0124 SDH
B4a 153 6.56 (5.55, 7.56) 23 2.09 (1.33, 3.12) 0.0000 SDH
B4b1 62 2.66 (2.00, 3.31) 11 1.00 (0.50, 1.78) 0.0014 SDH
B5a 142 6.08 (5.11, 7.05) 9 0.82 (0.37, 1.55) 0.0000 SDH
F * 80 3.43 (2.69, 4.17) 19 1.73 (1.04, 2.68) 0.0044 SDH
F1a 250 10.71 (9.46, 11.97) 40 3.63 (2.61, 4.91) 0.0000 SDH
M7* 24 1.03 (0.62, 1.44) 3 0.27 (0.06, 0.79) 0.0210 SDH
M7b* 85 3.64 (2.88, 4.40) 12 1.09 (0.56, 1.90) 0.0000 SDH
M7b1 101 4.33 (3.50, 5.15) 25 2.27 (1.47, 3.33) 0.0025 SDH
R9a 43 1.84 (1.30, 2.39) 4 0.36 (0.01, 0.72) 0.0002 SDH
R9b 34 1.46 (0.97, 1.94) 3 0.27 (0.06, 0.79) 0.0011 SDH
B * 16 0.69 (0.35, 1.02) 2 0.18 (0.02, 0.65) 0.0740 SDH
B4 94 4.03 (3.23, 4.83) 31 2.82 (1.92, 3.97) 0.0794 SDH
B5* 10 0.43 (0.16, 0.69) 3 0.27 (0.06, 0.79) 0.5684 SDH
B5b 15 0.64 (0.32, 0.97) 16 1.45 (0.83, 2.35) 0.0513  
F1b 54 2.31 (1.70, 2.93) 25 2.27 (1.47, 3.33) 1.0000 SDH
F1c 18 0.77 (0.42, 1.13) 11 1.00 (0.50, 1.78) 0.5496 SDH
F2a 30 1.29 (0.83, 1.74) 11 1.00 (0.50, 1.78) 0.6137 SDH
M7a 3 0.13 (0.03, 0.38) 1 0.09 (00.00, 0.51) 1.0000 SDH
M7b2 9 0.39 (0.13, 0.64) 9 0.82 (0.37, 1.55) 0.1274 SDH
N9a 50 2.14 (1.55, 2.73) 29 2.63 (1.77, 3.76) 0.3936  
R * 20 0.86 (0.48, 1.23) 5 0.45 (0.15, 1.06) 0.2814 SDH
R9c 9 0.39 (0.13, 0.64) 0 0.00 (0.00, 0.27) 0.0656 SDH
Y 9 0.39 (0.13, 0.64) 8 0.73 (0.31, 1.43) 0.1978  
  1. Note: The significant level is defined as P<0.05. Although frequency of haplogroups B*, B4, B5*, F1b, F1c, F2a, M7a, M7b2, R*, and R9c are not statistical significant between south and north, they are in fact dominating in the language groups in south. Thus, they were identified as SDH.