Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Molecular one-upmanship

Pathogens and their hosts engage in perpetual molecular arms races. In one such evolutionary stand-off, the protagonists are trypanosome parasites and a human immune complex based on a high-density lipoprotein. See Letter p.430

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Trypanosome resistance to host immunity.


  1. Smith, E. E. & Malik, H. S. Genome Res. 19, 850–858 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Uzureau, P. et al. Nature 501, 430–434 (2013).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Vanhollebeke, B. & Pays, E. Mol. Microbiol. 76, 806–814 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gibson, W., Nemetschke, L. & Ndung'u, J. Infect. Genet. Evol. 10, 453–458 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Symula, R. E. et al. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 6, e1728 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Higgins, M. K. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 1905–1910 (2013).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kieft, R. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16137–16141 (2010).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. De Greef, C., Chimfwembe, E., Kihang'a Wabacha, J., Bajyana Songa, E. & Hamers, R. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 72, Suppl. 1, 13–21 (1992).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Stephens, N. A., Kieft, R., MacLeod, A. & Hajduk, S. L. Trends Parasitol. 28, 539–545 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Genovese, G. et al. Science 329, 841–845 (2010).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ko, W.-Y. et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 93, 54–66 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kopp, J. B. et al. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22, 2129–2137 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Thomson, R., Molina-Portela, P., Mott, H., Carrington, M. & Raper, J. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 19509–19514 (2009).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kageruka, P. et al. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 71, 39–46 (1991).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jayne Raper or David J. Friedman.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Raper, J., Friedman, D. Molecular one-upmanship. Nature 501, 322–323 (2013).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing