Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Facing up to complexity

The anatomy of three new fossils, including a face, lends support to the hypothesis that there were at least two parallel lineages early in the evolutionary history of our own genus, Homo. See Letter p.201

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1: Branching to humans.


  1. Leakey, M. G. et al. Nature 488, 201–204 (2012).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Leakey, M. D. Olduvai Gorge: Excavations in Beds I and II, 1960–1963 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1971).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Leakey, L. S. B., Tobias, P. V. & Napier, J. R. Nature 202, 7–9 (1964).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Ruff, C. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138, 90–100 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Leakey, M. G. & Leakey, R. E. Koobi Fora Research Project Vol. 1 (Clarendon, 1978).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Tobias, P. V. Olduvai Gorge: The Skulls, Endocasts and Teeth of Homo habilis (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Wood, B. Koobi Fora Research Project Vol. 4 (Clarendon, 1991).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Wood, B. Nature 355, 783–790 (1992).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Wood, B. & Collard, M. Science 284, 65–71 (1999).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Wood, B. & Baker, J. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 42, 47–69 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bernard Wood.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wood, B. Facing up to complexity. Nature 488, 162–163 (2012).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing