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Prepare for the coming space weather storm

Nature volume 484, pages 311313 (19 April 2012) | Download Citation

We need to improve estimates of geomagnetic storm size, says Mike Hapgood, so we can be ready for huge disruptions to electrical systems.

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  1. 1.

    Developing Threats: Electro-Magnetic Pulses (EMP) pp. Ev26–Ev27 (UK House of Commons Defence Committee, 2012); available at

  2. 2.

    National Research Council Space Studies Board Severe Space Weather Events — Understanding Societaland Economic Impacts (National Academies Press, 2008); available at

  3. 3.

    , & Space Weather 9, S10001 (2011).

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Author information


  1. Mike Hapgood is head of the space environment group with RAL Space, part of the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. He is based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Didcot, UK, and chairs an expert group that advises the UK government on space weather risks.

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Correspondence to Mike Hapgood.

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