Anastassaki A, Magnusson T Acta Odontol Scand 2004; 62: 183–192

While most patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) respond to some treatment, a variety of different treatments may be effective. Over an 8 yr period, 3194 patients (3/4 female) referred to a Swedish clinic were examined. Those with rare diagnoses, or without one according to ICD-9, were excluded (473), and in the remaining 2721, 4464 diagnoses were recorded.

Disc displacement was recorded in 29%, tension headache in 19%, myo-arthralgia in 18%, arthritis in 14%, myalgia in 11%, osteoarthrosis in 10%, nonspecific orofacial pain in 6% and rheumatoid arthritis in 4%. Therapeutic jaw exercises were prescribed for 75%, and interocclusal appliances for 56%. Women had greater severity of symptoms, and responded better to treatment than men. Regression analysis gave significant odds ratios for favourable outcome with 3 diagnoses: disc displacement without reduction, arthritis and myalgia; non-specific orofacial pain gave a poorer outcome.