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Natural gas

Should fracking stop?

Nature volume 477, pages 271275 (15 September 2011) | Download Citation

Extracting gas from shale increases the availability of this resource, but the health and environmental risks may be too high.

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Author information


  1. Robert W. Howarth is in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, New York 14853, USA.

    • Robert W. Howarth
  2. Anthony Ingraffea is in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, New York 14853, USA.

    • Anthony Ingraffea
  3. Terry Engelder is in the department of geosciences at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

    • Terry Engelder


  1. Search for Robert W. Howarth in:

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Competing interests

Over more than 40 years, T.E.'s research on fracking has been supported by US government agencies including the NSF, DOE, RPSEA, NETL, NYSERDA, EPRI, GRI, NRC, USGS, and PA-DCNR. Industry support has come from Royal Dutch Shell, Total, Elf, Agip, Texaco, Shell USA, Exxon, ARCO, Mobil, Chevron, Chesapeake, Range Resources, CNX, Talisman, Samson, Southwestern, Encana, Hess and Schlumberger. He has also consulted for industry nationally and internationally.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Robert W. Howarth or Terry Engelder.

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