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Being human: Conflict: Altruism's midwife

Nature volume 456, pages 326327 (20 November 2008) | Download Citation


Generosity and solidarity towards one's own may have emerged only in combination with hostility towards outsiders, says Samuel Bowles.

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  1. Samuel Bowles directs the Behavioral Sciences Program at the Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA, and is professor in the Department of Political Economy at the University of Siena, Italy. He is the author of Microeconomics: Behavior, Institutions and Evolution.

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