Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Wiring up quantum systems

The emerging field of circuit quantum electrodynamics could pave the way for the design of practical quantum computers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Figure 2: Circuit QED devices.
Figure 3: Vacuum Rabi splitting.
Figure 4: Wiring up quantum systems.

References

  1. Nielsen, M. A. & Chuang, I. L. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. Leggett, A. J. Prog. Theor. Phys. 69 (suppl.), 80 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Devoret, M. H., Martinis, J. M. & Clarke, J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1908–1911 (1985).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. Clarke, J., Cleland, A. N., Devoret, M. H., Esteve, D. & Martinis, J. M. Science 239, 992–997 (1988).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. Devoret, M. H. et al. in Quantum Tunnelling in Condensed Media (eds Kagan, Y. & Leggett, A. J.) (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Turlot, E. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1788–1791 (1989).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. Bouchiat, V. et al. Phys. Scr. T76, 165–170 (1998).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. Nakamura, Y., Pashkin, Yu. A. & Tsai, J. S. Nature 398, 786–788 (1999).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. Devoret, M. H. & Martinis, J. M. Quant. Inform. Process. 3, 163–203 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Steffen, M. et al. Science 313, 1423–1425 (2006).

    Article  MathSciNet  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  11. Yamamoto, T., Pashkin, Yu. A., Astafiev, O., Nakamura, Y. & Tsai, J. S. Nature 425, 941–944 (2003).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. Cirac, J. I., Zoller, P., Kimble, H. J. & Mabuchi, H. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. Shnirman, A., Schon, G. & Hermon, Z. Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2371–2374 (1997).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. Makhlin, Y., Schon, G. & Shnirman, A. Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 357–400 (2001).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. Marquardt, F. & Bruder, C. Phys. Rev. B 63, 054514 (2001).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  16. Buisson, O. & Hekking, F. in Macroscopic Quantum Coherence and Quantum Computing (eds Averin, D. V., Ruggiero, B. & Silvestrini, P.) (Kluwer, New York, 2001).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Al-Saidi, W. A. & Stroud, D. Phys. Rev. B 65, 014512 (2001).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  18. Plastina, F. & Falci, G. Phys. Rev. B 67, 224514 (2003).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. Blais, A., Maassen van den Brink, A. & Zagoskin, A. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 127901 (2003).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. Yang, C.-P., Chu, S.-I. & Han, S. Phys. Rev. A 67, 042311 (2003).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. You, J. Q. & Nori, F. Phys. Rev. B 68, 064509 (2003).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. Blais, A., Huang, R.-S., Wallraff, A., Girvin, S. & Schoelkopf, R. Phys. Rev. A 69, 062320 (2004).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  23. Wallraff, A. et al. Nature 431, 162–167 (2004).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  24. Chiorescu, I. et al. Nature 431, 159–162 (2004).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  25. Johansson, J. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127006 (2006).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  26. Schuster, D. I. et al. Nature 445, 515–518 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  27. Houck, A. A. et al. Nature 449, 328–331 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  28. Majer, J. et al. Nature 449, 443–447 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  29. Sillanpaa, M. A., Park, J. I. & Simmonds, R. W. Nature 449, 438–442 (2007).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  30. Astafiev, O. et al. Nature 449, 588–590 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. Haroche, S. & Raimond, J. M. Exploring the Quantum: Atoms, Cavities, and Photons (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  32. Walther, H. et al. Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1325–1382 (2006).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  33. Miller, T. E. et al. J. Phys. B 38, S551–S565 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Thompson, R. J., Rempe, G. & Kimble, H. J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132–1135 (1992).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  35. Raimond, J. M., Brune, M. & Haroche, S. Rev. Mod Phys. 73, 565–582 (2001).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  36. Meschede, D., Walther, H. & Muller, G. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 551–554 (1985).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. Rempe, G., Walther, H. & Klein, N. Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 353–356 (1987).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  38. Brune, M. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800–1803 (1996).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  39. Vahala, K. J. Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  40. Reithmaier, J. P. et al. Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  41. Yoshie, Y. et al. Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  42. Leibfried, D. et al. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  43. Gabrielse, G. & Dehmelt, H. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 67–70 (1985).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  44. Gleyzes, S. et al. Nature 446, 297–300 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  45. Guerlin, C. et al. Nature 448, 889–894 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  46. Hijlkema, M. et al. Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  47. Osnaghi, S. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037902 (2001).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  48. Pellizari, T., Gardiner, S. A., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3788–3791 (1995).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  49. Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091–4094 (1995).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  50. Devoret, M. H. in Quantum Fluctuations (eds Reynaud, S., Giacobino, E. & Zinn-Justin, J.) (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997).

    Google Scholar 

  51. Day, P. K., LeDuc, H. G., Mazin, B. A., Vayonakis, A. & Zmuidzinas, J. Nature 425, 817–821 (2003).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  52. Frunzio, L. et al. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 860–863 (2005).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  53. Devoret, M., Girvin, S. & Schoelkopf, R. Ann. Phys. 16, 767–779 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Houck, A. A., Chow, J. M., Johnson, B. R. & Schoelkopf, R. J. (unpublished data, 2007).

  55. Braginsky, V. B. & Panov, V. I. IEEE Trans. Magnetics 15, 30–32 (1979).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  56. Braginsky, V. B., Ilchenko, V. S. & Bagdassarov, Kh. S. Phys. Lett. A 120, 300–305 (1987).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  57. Kuhr, S. et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 164101 (2007).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  58. Martinis, J. M. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 210503 (2005).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  59. Sorensen, A., van der Wal, C. H., Childress, L. I. & Lukin, M. D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063601 (2004).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  60. Hyafil, P. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103001 (2004).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. Andre, A. et al. Nature Phys. 2, 636–642 (2006).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  62. Seidelin, S. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  63. Nirrengarten, T. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 200405 (2006).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  64. Kielpinski, D., Monroe, C. & Wineland, D. J. Nature 417, 709–711 (2002).

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge continued support from the US Army Research Office, the National Security Agency, the National Science Foundation and Yale University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Schoelkopf, R., Girvin, S. Wiring up quantum systems. Nature 451, 664–669 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/451664a

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/451664a

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing