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Gynaecomastia: aetiology and treatment options

Abstract

This paper reviews the aetiology, prevalence and treatment of gynaecomastia. Gynaecomastia is a proliferation of male breast tissue apparently caused by alterations in the ratio of oestrogen:androgen levels. It is common in the general population, resulting from normal physiological changes and various pathological causes. Gynaecomastia is also induced by many drug treatments, including hormonal therapies for prostate cancer. Prophylactic radiotherapy appears to be effective against gynaecomastia in this population. Surgery is an option for intractable cases, and some medical treatments have been reported, although there is a paucity of data evaluating such therapies.

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Correspondence to CJ Tyrrell.

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Tyrrell, C. Gynaecomastia: aetiology and treatment options. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2, 167–171 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.pcan.4500314

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Keywords

  • gynaecomastia
  • prostate cancer
  • nonsteroidal antiandrogen
  • monotherapy
  • radiotherapy

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