Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Another manifestation of GOD

In studies of the evolution of the adaptive immune system, the lamprey has been an unlikely centre of attention. These studies now provide evidence of a fascinating variation on how such a system can operate.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates and the jawless lamprey.


  1. 1

    Pancer, Z. et al. Nature 430, 174–180 (2004).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Hozumi, N. & Tonegawa, S. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 73, 3628–3632 (1976).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Schatz, D. G., Oettinger, M. A. & Baltimore, D. Cell 59, 1035–1048 (1989).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Jerne, N. K. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 41, 849–857 (1955).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Flajnik, M. F., Miller, K. & Du Pasquier, L. in Fundamental Immunology 5th edn (ed. Paul, W. E.) 519–570 (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2003).

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Bernstein, R. M., Schluter, S. F., Berstein, H. & Marchalonis, J. J. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93, 9454–9459 (1996).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Thompson, C. B. Immunity 3, 531–539 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Lee, S. S. et al. Immunity 16, 571–582 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Donelson, J. E. Acta Trop. 85, 391–404 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Uinuk-Ool, T. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 14356–14361 (2002).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Bell, J. K. et al. Trends Immunol. 24, 528–533 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Hawke, N. A. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 13832–13837 (2001).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Flajnik, M. Another manifestation of GOD. Nature 430, 157–158 (2004).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing