In both pathways, dendritic cells internalize the pathogen. They present its antigens to T cells, which recognize antigens through their T-cell receptors (TCR). a, Organisms such as intracellular bacteria or viruses are recognized by the Toll-like receptors on dendritic cells; the resulting signals induce the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and differentiation of CD4 T cells into the Th1 lineage that produces gamma interferon (IFN-γ). b, How dendritic cells recognize larger pathogens, such as parasitic worms, is not known. But the end result is differentiation of Th2 effector cells regulated by T-cell-produced interleukin-4 (IL-4). Information1,2 on the link between dendritic cells and T cells suggests that the former express different Notch ligands — Delta or Jagged — under different conditions. Jagged is specifically induced by stimuli known to induce Th2 differentiation. Notch signals (Notch-IC) can induce transcription of IL-4 through direct binding of RBPJκ to the IL-4 promoter1.