Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Brief Communication
  • Published:

Tissue engineering

Creation of long-lasting blood vessels


The construction of stable blood vessels is a fundamental challenge for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. Although certain genes can be introduced into vascular cells to enhance their survival and proliferation, these manipulations may be oncogenic. We show here that a network of long-lasting blood vessels can be formed in mice by co-implantation of vascular endothelial cells and mesenchymal precursor cells, by-passing the need for risky genetic manipulations. These networks are stable and functional for one year in vivo.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1: Morphological and functional analysis of engineered blood vessels.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Orlidge, A. & D'Amore, P. A. J. Cell Biol. 105, 1455–1462 (1987).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Hirschi, K. K., Rohovsky, S. A. & D'Amore, P. A. J. Cell Biol. 141, 805–814 (1998).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Darland, D. C. & D'Amore, P. A. Angiogenesis 4, 11–20 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Jain, R. K., Munn, L. L. & Fukumura, D. Nature Rev. Cancer 2, 266–276 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Schechner, J. S. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 9191–9196 (2000).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Jain, R. K. Nature Med. 9, 685–693 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Yang, J. et al. Nature Biotechnol. 19, 219–224 (2001).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. McKee, J. A. et al. EMBO Rep. 4, 633–638 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Yamashita, J. et al. Nature 408, 92–96 (2000).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Simper, D., Stalboerger, P. G., Panetta, C. J., Wang, S. & Caplice, N. M. Circulation 106, 1199–1204 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rakesh K. Jain.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Includes information on: preparation of the 3-D construct for tissue engineered blood vessels; vascular permeability measurement; and arteriolar contractility assay. (DOC 31 kb)

Supplementary Movie

3-D presentation of tissue engineered blood vessels. HUVECs and 10T1/2 cells were seeded in the 3-D constructs and implanted in the animals. EGFP-expressing HUVECs (green) and perfused blood vessels (red) were visualized by multi-photon laser-scanning microscopy (Ref. 4). At day 28, blood perfusion could be seen in all layers of the construct. Thickness of the construct is 165 µm. Image is 270 µm across. (MOV 1006 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Koike, N., Fukumura, D., Gralla, O. et al. Creation of long-lasting blood vessels. Nature 428, 138–139 (2004).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing