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Granular materials

Shaken sand — a granular fluid?

The connection between random grain motion and viscosity in shaken sand — a strongly non-equilibrium system — has been probed. Curiously, the link is similar to that found in an ordinary liquid in thermal equilibrium.

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Umbanhowar, P. Shaken sand — a granular fluid?. Nature 424, 886–887 (2003).

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